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Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
     Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
Official journal of the Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons         
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   2014| January-March  | Volume 19 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 28, 2014

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Laparoscopic nephrectomy in children for benign conditions: indications and outcome
Prema Menon, Abhilasha T Handu, Katragadda Lakshmi Narasimha Rao, Suman Arora
January-March 2014, 19(1):22-27
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.125953  PMID:24604980
Aim: To analyze the indications and outcome of laparoscopic nephrectomy for benign non-functioning kidneys in children. Materials and Methods: The data of all patients operated over a 10 year period was retrospectively analyzed. Results: There were 56 children, aged 4 months to 12 years with a male: female ratio of 2.3:1. The most common presentation in boys and girls was urinary tract infection (UTI) (61.5% and 47.05% respectively). Incontinence due to ectopic ureter was a close second in girls (41.17%). The most common underlying conditions were vesico-ureteric reflux (42.85%) and multicystic dysplastic kidney (23.2%). There were 6 nephrectomies, 4 heminephroureterectomies and the remaining nephroureterectomies. All children tolerated the surgery well. One patient underwent a concomitant cholecystectomy. The post-operative problems encountered were UTI (1), urine retention (1), pyonephrosis in the opposite kidney and development of contra-lateral reflux (1). All others had resolution of pre-operative symptoms with good cosmesis. Conclusions: As per available literature, this appears to be the largest Indian series of pediatric laparoscopic nephrectomies for benign non-functioning kidneys. Laparoscopic approach gives excellent results provided pre-operative investigations rule out other causes for the symptoms with which the patient presents. Often it is not the kidney but the dilated dysplastic ureter which is the seat of stasis and infection or pain and therefore should be completely removed.
  3,561 158 -
Correlation of intracystic pressure with cyst volume, length of common channel, biochemical changes in bile and histopathological changes in liver in choledochal cyst
Nitin Sharma, Veereshwar Bhatnagar, M Srinivas, Sandeep Agarwala, Manoj Kumar Singh, Raju Sharma
January-March 2014, 19(1):10-16
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.125946  PMID:24604978
Aims: This study was undertaken to establish correlation between intracholedochal cystic pressure (ICCP) with biochemical changes in bile, liver histology, cyst wall histology, length of common channel, and cyst volume. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, ICCP was measured after surgical access before any mobilization by direct cyst cannulation. Bile was then aspirated for biochemical estimation (bilirubin, amylase, lipase, pH, and electrolytes). Common channel length and cyst volume were determined by preoperative magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Liver histology was assessed under parenchymal, bile duct, and portal parameters. Cyst wall was examined for ulceration, inflammation, fibrosis, and metaplasia. Results: ICCP was recorded in 31 patients; mean and median ICCP were 15.64 and 14 mmHg, respectively (range = 6-30 mmHg). Cases with median ICCP < 14 had median cyst volume of 48 cc (range = 36-115) and amylase 2052 IU/L (range = 190-5052) whereas those with ICCP ≥ 15 had volume of 20 cc (range = 10-100) (P = 0.004) and amylase 36 IU/L (range = 0-2806) (P = 0.0004) suggesting inverse correlation. No significant correlation was found with bilirubin and electrolytes. ICCP directly correlated with parenchymal changes like hepatocellular damage (P = 0.002) and cholestasis (P = 0.001). It also correlated with bile duct changes. ICCP inversely correlated with cyst wall changes (P = 0.003, 0.0001, 0.023, 0.0013, respectively). High pressure cysts had normal pancreaticobiliary junction. Conclusion: High-pressure cysts tend to be smaller but have more severe backpressure changes in liver parenchyma. Low-pressure cysts have high volume and higher levels of amylase and lipase and therefore have more severe cyst wall changes.
  3,483 177 -
Gastric volvulus with partial and complete gastric necrosis
Ram Mohan Shukla, Kartik Chandra Mandal, Sujay Maitra, Amit Ray, Ruchirendu Sarkar, Biswanath Mukhopadhyay, Malay Bhattacharya
January-March 2014, 19(1):49-51
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.125968  PMID:24604987
Here, we report two interesting cases of gastric necrosis in acute gastric volvulus due to eventration of the diaphragm. Both the cases presented with a significant challenge and were managed successfully. The management of the cases is presented and relevant literature is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of gastric volvulus with gastric necrosis requiring complete and partial gastrectomy in the available English literature.
  3,442 141 6
Nonurological malignancies in children
Lalit Parida
January-March 2014, 19(1):31-37
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.125960  PMID:24604982
Context: Nonurological malignancies in children include a wide variety of tumors. These tumors include primary tumors of the liver, thyroid, lung, gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and adrenals; soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) like rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and non-RMS; and finally extragonadal germ cell tumors (GCT). Aims: This article aims at describing the current thinking in the management of these childhood solid tumors. This is critical in view of the recent advances in the elucidation of the molecular, genetic, and biologic behavior of these tumors and how these factors are getting integrated not only in the staging but also in developing a risk-based approach towards the management of these tumors. Materials and Methods: Reference was made to recently published literature from the leading pediatric cancer centers of the world to make a sense of things of the most current thinking in this rapidly expanding field. This will provide surgeons and physicians taking care of these children with a working knowledge in this somewhat challenging field. Conclusions: Treatment results vary from center to center depending on access to resources and following different management protocols. Results have improved for these tumors with the advent of newer chemotherapeutic agents, novel delivery methods of radiation therapy (RT), and improvement in surgical technique. Due to the limited number of patients presenting with these tumors, national and international collaboration of data is critical for all and beneficial to individual treatment centers. This has resulted in better results in the past and will definitely result in still better results in the future.
  3,085 159 1
To observe the intensity of the inflammatory reaction caused by neonatal urine and meconium on the intestinal wall of rats in order to understand etiology of intestinal damage in gastroschisis
Devdas S Samala, Sandesh V Parelkar, Beejal V Sanghvi, Natasha L Vageriya, Bhupesh A Paradkar, Bhuvaneshwari M Kandalkar, Pragati A Sathe
January-March 2014, 19(1):5-9
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.125944  PMID:24604977
Objectives: The aim of this experimental study was to observe the intensity of the inflammatory reaction caused by neonatal urine and meconium on the intestinal wall of rats to better understand etiology of intestinal damage in gastroschisis. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 adult Wistar rats were used as experimental models to simulate the effect of exposed bowel in cases of gastroschisis. The peritoneal cavity of the rats was injected with substances which constitute human amniotic fluid to study the effect on the bowel. Sterile urine and meconium were obtained from newborn humans. The rats were divided into four groups according to the material to be injected. In Group I (Control group) 3 mL of distilled water was injected, in Group II (Urine group) 3 mL of neonatal urine was injected, in Group III (Meconium group) 5% meconium suspension was injected, while in Group IV, a combination of 5% meconium suspension and urine was injected. A total of 3mL solution was injected into the right inferior quadrant twice a day for 5 days. The animals were sacrificed on the 6 th day by a high dose of thiopentone sodium. A segment of small bowel specimen was excised, fixed in paraffin, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for microscopic analysis for determination of the degree of inflammatory reaction in the intestinal wall. All pathology specimens were studied by the same pathologist. Results: The maximum bowel damage was seen in Group II (Urine group) in the form of serositis, severe enteritis, parietal necrosis, and peeling. A lesser degree of damage was observed in Group III (Meconium group) as mild enteritis (mild lymphoid hyperplasia). The least damage was seen in Group IV (Combination of meconium and urine) and Group I (Control group). Conclusion: The intraabdominal injection of neonatal human urine produces significant inflammatory reactions in the intestinal wall of rats.
  2,976 157 1
Disorders of Sex Development: The quintessence of perennial controversies
Minu Bajpai
January-March 2014, 19(1):3-4
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.125943  PMID:24604976
  2,877 179 2
Esophageal exclusion and bypass for corrosive injury: The lessons learnt
Richa Lal, Anu Behari, Jayanth Reddy, Banani Poddar
January-March 2014, 19(1):46-48
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.125967  PMID:24604986
While it is always preferable to excise and replace the diseased esophagus in corrosive injuries, the surgeon may be compelled to exclude and bypass it by a substernal conduit in select situations wherein excision is technically hazardous. This case illustrates the lessons learnt from a potentially life-threatening complication of bipolar esophageal exclusion.
  2,910 145 2
Malignant rhabdoid tumor of liver
Sandeep Agarwala, Bibekanand Jindal, Manisha Jana, Veereshwar Bhatnagar, Arun Kumar Gupta, Venkateshwar K Iyer
January-March 2014, 19(1):38-40
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.125961  PMID:24604983
Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) is a rare, but aggressive tumor commonly arising from the kidney in young children. Extrarenal MRT has been reported in the literature in various other sites including the liver, pelvis, CNS, abdomen, heart and other soft-tissues. Reported herein are the presentation, radiology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, treatment and outcome of a 6 month infant with primary MRT of liver.
  2,723 144 3
Creation of effective antireflux mechanism without creation of submucosal tunnel in surgical correction of vesicoureteric reflux: Myth or reality?-An experimental study
Archika Gupta, Shiv Narain Kureel
January-March 2014, 19(1):17-21
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.125949  PMID:24604979
Objective: To evaluate the possibility of creating an effective antireflux mechanism without the need to create submucosal tunnel in surgical correction of vesicoureteric reflux. Materials and Methods: Ethical clearance was obtained from the institute ethical committee. The prospective experimental study was conducted on fresh postmortem specimens comprising of intact ureter-bladder-urethra of slaughtered lamb. Through perurethral tube, bladder distension revealed intact antireflux mechanism which disappeared following a cephalad slit of ureteric orifice. After intravesical advancement, mobilized ureters were anchored to the hiatus and the exposed detrusor along the proposed submucosal tunnel after stripping the bladder mucosa. Limited nonobstructed narrowing of the advanced ureteric ends was fashioned. After closure, bladder was distended and reflux was observed through proximal transected ureteric orifices with check cystogram. In second part of experiment, in a rectal reservoir, two intestinal segments as dilated ureters were implanted without creating submucosal tunnel, but anchoring the intrarectal segment to exposed submucosa. Intraluminal end of one segment was narrowed, while other left as such. Reservoir distension test was done to notice the status of reflux. In 24 months, 12 experiments were conducted. Results: In first part of experiment, successful antireflux mechanism was created in 11 ureters. In second part of experiment, reflux persisted in the ureteral segment implanted with obliquity but without distal nonobstructed narrowing, while there was no reflux in the ureteral segment with both obliquity and narrowing. Conclusion: Advancement and anchoring of the ureteral segment to the exposed detrusor with creation of nonobstructive and limited narrowing can create effective antireflux mechanism without the need to create submucosal tunnel.
  2,704 157 -
Technique of 'suture less' appendicectomy by laparoscopy in children: Preliminary communication
Minu Bajpai
January-March 2014, 19(1):28-30
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.125956  PMID:24604981
Objective: Objective of this study is to present our experience by harmonic scalpel enabled, single external port appendicectomy using extracorporeally inserted 'pick and fix' stitch in three cases. Materials and Methods: Of the eighteen appendicectomies performed with only the use of harmonic scalpel in the last 11 months, the last three were performed using a single external port with the second port accessed under the subcutaneous tissues. The procedure consists of anchoring the mesoappendix to anterior abdominal wall by an extracorporeally inserted 'pick and fix' stitch followed by dissection and division of mesoappendix and appendix only with harmonic scalpel. Results: There were three patients, one female and two males aged 5, 7, and 11 years, respectively. Two were elective and one was emergency appendicectomy. Mean operating time was 30 min without any surgical complications. All patients are in follow-up with no complications. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the combined virtue of single external port, use of harmonic scalpel, and 'pick and fix' suture in laparoscopic appendicectomy in children. This approach avoids the use of an additional port as well as endosuture; and is safe, efficient, cost-effective, and is associated with reduced surgical time.
  2,609 179 4
Presidential Address: 39th Annual Conference of the Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons, Bhubaneswar, Odisha - November 8, 2013
Sudhakar Jadhav
January-March 2014, 19(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.125941  PMID:24604975
  2,623 129 -
Segmental dilatation of ureter: Report of two cases
Hemonta Kr. Dutta
January-March 2014, 19(1):41-43
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.125965  PMID:24604984
Segmental dilatation of ureter is a giant, focal segmental ureteral dilatation producing an elongated and distorted ureter. Two children presented with this condition, one had ipsilateral megacalycosis and contralateral vesicoureteric reflux. The other had duplication of the kidney. The non-functioning lower moiety showed structure of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis.
  2,318 99 -
Benign papillomatosis of common bile duct in children: A rare case report
Amit Singh, Nitin Sharma, Shasanka Shekhar Panda, Minu Bajpai, Manisha Jana
January-March 2014, 19(1):44-45
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.125966  PMID:24604985
In children benign neoplasms are rare events in the extrahepatic biliary ducts and scanty literary references on the subject are available. We are reporting a rare case of a 3-year-old female child having biliary papillomatosis in lower common bile duct.
  2,227 110 -
Novel use of tendon tunneler to create space with minimal dissection in endoscopic head and neck operations
Ravi Kishore Barla Sri Sathya, Reju Joseph Thomas, Sundeep Kisku, Susan Jehangir, Deepak Samson Singh, Jujju Jacob Kurien
January-March 2014, 19(1):52-53
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.125969  PMID:24604988
  2,192 106 1
Normal non-atretic ureter in multicystic dysplastic kidney: Report of two cases
Shasanka Shekhar Panda, Amit Singh, Minu Bajpai, Manisha Jana
January-March 2014, 19(1):53-54
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.125970  PMID:24604989
  1,866 103 -
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