Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
                                                   Official journal of the Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons                           
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 137--138

Insight into posterior urethral valve management


Ramesh Babu1, VV S. Chandrasekharam2,  
1 Department of Pediatric Urology, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Pediatric Minimally Invasive Surgery, Ankura Childrens Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ramesh Babu
Department of Pediatric Urology, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Porur, Chennai - 600 116, Tamil Nadu
India




How to cite this article:
Babu R, S. Chandrasekharam V V. Insight into posterior urethral valve management.J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg 2021;26:137-138


How to cite this URL:
Babu R, S. Chandrasekharam V V. Insight into posterior urethral valve management. J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 May 22 ];26:137-138
Available from: https://www.jiaps.com/text.asp?2021/26/2/137/310660


Full Text



Sir,

We read with interest the article published on insight into the posterior urethral valve (PUV) by Chatterjee et al.[1] There are several concepts that need clarification for junior colleagues.

 Role of Voiding Cystourethrogram



The guidelines on the evaluation of bilateral antenatal hydronephrosis involve a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) in all male neonates to rule out PUV.[2] VCUG gives a clear idea on the extent of posterior urethra (PU) dilatation, bladder, and reflux status [Figure 1]. Conventionally, pediatric surgeons do not omit a VCUG unless the child is preterm or too sick. A pre-procedure VCUG is also useful in assessing resolution by comparing parameters post fulguration.[3]{Figure 1}

 Primary Bladder Neck Incision along with Posterior Urethral Valve Fulguration



Primary bladder neck incision (BNI) was performed in select patients with high glistening bladder neck and severe trabeculations of the bladder. While the papers describe the technique and indications of BNI, the authors do not describe in the results whether those who had primary BNI performed better. It would have been beneficial to the readers if the patients were divided into two groups with or without primary BNI and the benefit proven in results. Sarin and Sinha[4] did not find any benefit of BNI in children with PUV. Alpha-blockers have been reported to result in better bladder emptying.[5] So we believe that a trial of medical management should be given before going for BNI.

 Urodynamic Study in Posterior Urethral Valve



While urodynamic study (UDS) is very useful in older children with PUV, in infants with poorly developed voiding refluxes, it may often be inconclusive. The first author has particularly relied on UDS parameters for selecting patients for secondary BNI. Patients with persistent hydroureteronephrosis post-PUV fulguration are usually empirically treated with anticholinergics/alpha-blockers during infancy without UDS.

 Rhabdosphincter Spasm



The article extensively discusses on the theories of rhabdosphincter (RS) and even describes five neonates where they could not find PUV. Although RS lies distal to the level of PUV, the author claims, it is at the same level and describes several RS managements (thermal dissipation, longer catheterization, balloon pull of RS) in those with PU trabeculation. We do not agree with these views and we feel that RS should not be damaged during PUV fulguration.

 Secondary Vesico Ureteric Reflux and Obstruction



Proper bladder management often results in the improvement of secondary effects. The author attempts the insertion of DJ stent in these cases. This may introduce infection into the dilated system and also transfer the high bladder pressures to upper tracts. We do not support the role of DJ stenting in children with PUV.

Down staging of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was 4/91, 2/68, and 4/77 for three authors with no significant difference (Chi-square P = 0.79). The article concludes that the upstaging of CKD in the series of second and third authors could be due to not performing BNI or RS management. This could be a pure chance association (more dysplastic kidneys to start), and there is no solid statistical evidence provided in results to support BNI/RS management in PUV.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

1Chatterjee U, Basu A, Mitra D. Insight into posterior urethral valve from our experience: Paradigm appended to abate renal failure. J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg 2020;25:297.
2Sinha A, Bagga A, Krishna A, Bajpai M, Srinivas M, Uppal R, et al. Revised guidelines on management of antenatal hydronephrosis. Indian Pediatr 2013;50:215-31. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23474928.
3Babu R, Hariharasudhan S, Ramesh C. Posterior urethra: Anterior urethra ratio in the evaluation of success following PUV ablation. J Pediatr Urol 2016;12:385.e1-5.
4Sarin YK, Sinha S. Efficacy of bladder neck incision on urodynamic abnormalities in patients with posterior urethral valves. Pediatr Surg Int 2013;29:387-92.
5Abraham MK, Nasir AR, Sudarsanan B, Puzhankara R, Kedari PM, Unnithan GR, et al. Role of alpha adrenergic blocker in the management of posterior urethral valves. Pediatr Surg Int 2009;25:1113-5.