Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
                                                   Official journal of the Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons                           
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 53-

Mesenteric leiomyoma in infancy

Mahmood Dhahir Al-Mendalawi 
 Department of Paediatrics, Al-Kindy College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq

Correspondence Address:
Mahmood Dhahir Al-Mendalawi
P. O. Box: 55302, Baghdad Post Office, Baghdad

How to cite this article:
Al-Mendalawi MD. Mesenteric leiomyoma in infancy.J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg 2018;23:53-53

How to cite this URL:
Al-Mendalawi MD. Mesenteric leiomyoma in infancy. J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg [serial online] 2018 [cited 2022 Dec 8 ];23:53-53
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I read with interest the case report by Pavan et al. on the mesenteric leiomyoma in a Brazilian child.[1] I presume that the following factor could contribute to the early development of big size leiomyoma measuring 22 cm × 20 cm × 13 cm in the studied young child. It is obvious that individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are at an increased risk for lymphoproliferative and neoplastic disorders, including leiomyoma due to defective humoral and cellular immunity.[2] There is a close association between Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection and development of smooth muscle tumors, including leiomyoma in patients infected with HIV/AIDS.[3] To my knowledge, HIV infection is an important health threat in Brazil. Although no recent data are yet present on the exact pediatric seroprevalence of HIV infection in Brazil, the available data pointed out that the prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women was reported to be 0.38%.[4] I presume that the vertically acquired HIV infection should be seriously considered in the studied child. Hence, the diagnostic battery of immunohistochemical stain and in situ hybridization technique for EBV-encoded ribonucleic acid tumor cell nuclei as well as viral overload and CD4 count measurements for HIV infection was envisaged. If that diagnostic battery was done and it revealed underlying EBV-HIV coinfection, the case in question could confidently broaden the spectrum of gastrointestinal leiomyoma associated with EBV-HIV coinfection rarely reported in the pediatric literature so far.[5]

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1Pavan H, Rihl MF, Oliveira de Freitas SL. Mesenteric leiomyoma in infancy. J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg 2017;22:173-5.
2Micheletti AR, Macedo AC, Silva GB, Silva AC, Silva-Vergara ML, Murta EF, et al. Benign and malignant neoplasias in 261 necropsies for HIV-positive patients in the period of 1989 to 2008. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2011;53:309-14.
3Jenson HB, Leach CT, McClain KL, Joshi VV, Pollock BH, Parmley RT, et al. Benign and malignant smooth muscle tumors containing Epstein-Barr virus in children with AIDS. Leuk Lymphoma 1997;27:303-14.
4Pereira GF, Sabidó M, Caruso A, Oliveira SB, Mesquita F, Benzaken AS, et al. HIV prevalence among pregnant women in Brazil: A National survey. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2016;38:391-8.
5Sambol E, Patterson D, Rivera R, Borys D, Greco MA, Kaul A, et al. An appendiceal leiomyoma in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pediatr Surg Int 2006;22:865-8.