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Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
     Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
Official journal of the Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons         
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
May-June 2023
Volume 28 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 183-269

Online since Tuesday, May 2, 2023

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OBITUARY  

Obituary of Dr. Purushottam Upadhayaya Highly accessed article p. 183
Minu Bajpai
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.jiaps_64_23  
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Obituary of Prof. I. C. Pathak p. 185
Jai Kumar Mahajan
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.jiaps_77_23  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Retrospective analysis of the outcome of stoma closure in children without preoperative mechanical bowel preparation Highly accessed article p. 187
Rahul Saxena, Somya Bhatt, Manish Pathak, Akhil D Goel, Kirtikumar J Rathod, Arvind Sinha, Shubhlaxmi R Nayak, Avinash S Jadhav
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.jiaps_131_22  
Introduction: Stoma closure is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures by pediatric surgeons worldwide. In this study, we studied the outcome of children undergoing stoma closures without mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) in our department. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective observational study of children <18 years undergoing stoma closure from 2017 to 2021. The primary endpoints were surgical site infection (SSI), incisional hernia, anastomotic leak, and mortalities. The categorical data are expressed in percentages and the continuous data are in medians and interquartile ranges. The postoperative complications were classified according to the Clavien–Dindo system. Results: A total of 89 patients underwent stoma closure without bowel preparation during the study. The anastomosis leak and incisional hernia were seen in one patient each. The SSIs occurred in 23 patients (25.9%), which were superficial in 21 and deep in 2 patients. The Clavien–Dindo Grade III complications occurred in 2 (2.2%) patients. The median duration to start feeds and pass first stools was significantly longer in patients with ileostomy closure (P = 0.04 and 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: The outcome of stoma closures without MBP was favorable in our study and hence it can be suggested that the use of MBP in colostomy closures can be safely avoided in children.
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Propranolol for vascular anomalies: Efficacy and complications in pediatric patients p. 194
Rahul Gupta
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.jiaps_117_22  
Context: Congenital vascular anomalies are classically subdivided into vascular tumors and vascular malformations. The role of propranolol in the regression of infantile hemangioma (IH), a vascular tumor, is well establishe. Aims: This study aimed to analyze the therapeutic efficacy and complications associated with oral propranolol and adjuvant therapy in the treatment of vascular anomalies. Settings and Design: A prospective interventional study was undertaken over 10 years duration extending from 2012 to 2022 at a tertiary care teaching institute. Materials and Methods: All children with cutaneous hemangiomas and lymphatic and venous malformations under 12 years of age, except those with contraindications for administration of propranolol, were included in the study. Results: Out of 382 patients, there were 159 males and 223 females (male: female = 1:1.4). The majority (53.66%) were between ≥3 months and 1 year. There were 481 lesions in 382 patients. There were 348 patients with IH, and 11 were congenital hemangiomas (CHs). There were 23 patients with vascular malformations; lymphatic malformation (n = 19) and venous malformation (n = 4) were present. The size of the lesions ranged from 5 mm to 20 cm; 50.73% were 2–5 cm in size. Ulceration (>5 mm) was the most common complication present in 20/382 (5.24%) patients. Complications related to oral propranolol were seen in 23 (6.02%) patients. Drugs were given for a mean period of 10 months (range from 5 months to 2 years). At the end of the study, 282 (81.03%) out of 348 patients with IH showed an excellent response; 4 (36.36%) patients in the case of CH (n = 11) and 5 (21.74%) patients with vascular malformation (n = 23) showed excellent response. Conclusion: The study validates the use of propranolol hydrochloride as the first-line agent for the treatment of IHs and congenital hemangiomas. It may have an additive role in lymphatic malformations, and venous malformations, as a part of a multimodality treatment approach for vascular malformations.
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Amyand's hernia: Appendix in hernia or hernial appendicitis? p. 206
Praveen Mathur, Priyanka Mittal, Ajay Kumar
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.jiaps_64_22  
Purpose: The presence of an appendix in the inguinal hernia sac is defined as Amyand's hernia (AH). This study intends to present the authors' experience in dealing with this entity and also to present a discussion on possible need of updating its definition, classification, and management. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of records of all pediatric patients undergoing surgery for congenital inguinal hernia in a single unit from January 2017 to March 2021 was done. Patient's demographics, clinical presentation, preoperative investigations, peroperative findings, and postoperative outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Results: AH was found in eight patients. All were boys. The median age of presentation was 20.5 months (range 2 months to 36 months). The mean duration of symptoms was 2 days (range 2 to 4 days). All patients presented with incarcerated inguinoscrotal swelling (right sided = 5, left sided = 3); associated with pain. An abdominal radiograph and ultrasonography were done for all. All patients underwent emergency surgery. Exploration was done for all through an inguinal incision. The appendix was found inflamed for two patients, and appendectomy was done for the same. None of the patients underwent incidental appendectomy. Wound infection, secondary appendicitis, and recurrence were not seen for any of the patients. The authors have also proposed a revised definition and classification of AH. Conclusion: AH is an interesting entity and many questions like the need for incidental appendectomy remain unanswered. An updating of the definition and classification system can probably offer some solution in this regard. However, more research is warranted in this regard.
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Management of umbilical hernia in African children: The experience of 2146 cases p. 212
Gabriel Ngom, Florent Tshibwid A. Zeng, Aloise Sagna, Doudou Gueye, Ndeye Aby Ndoye, Papa Alassane Mbaye, Cheikh Ndiaye, Mbaye Fall, Oumar Ndour
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.jiaps_115_22  
Aims: Umbilical hernia (UH) is common in African and African-descent children. In high-income countries (HICs), it is considered benign, which is not the case in Sub-Saharan ones. Through this study, we aimed to share our experience. Materials and Methods: A descriptive review was conducted from January 01, 2012 to December 31, 2017 at Albert Royer National Children's Hospital Center. Among the 2499 patients, 2146 cases were included in the review. Results: UH had a frequency of 6.5%, with patients having a mean age of 2.6 years, with a male preponderance of 63%. Emergency consultation occurred in 37.1%. The symptomatic hernia was present in 90.9%. The congenital type was found in 96%, a history of painful episodes was reported in 46%, and medical and surgical comorbidities were found in 30.1% and 16.4%, respectively. Multimodal anesthesia was used in 93.1%. A lower umbilical crease incision was made in 83.2%, the sac was not empty in 16.3%, and additional umbilicoplasty was performed in 16.3%. During a 14-month follow-up, a complication occurred in 6.5% and mortality in 0.05%. Conclusion: In our region, the pediatric UH was predominantly symptomatic, with its natural evolution leading to more complications than in HICs. Its management carried acceptable morbidity.
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Peutz–Jeghers syndrome: Lessons to be learned in the clinical diagnosis p. 218
Ram Mohan Shukla, Pooja Tiwari, Samprati Dariya, Sarvagya Jain, Shashi Shankar Sharma, Ashok Laddha, Brijesh Kumar Lahoti, Hemant Thanna
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.jiaps_197_21  
Introduction: Peutz–Jeghers Syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal dominant disease presenting with hamartomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and hyperpigmented macules on lips and oral mucosa. The incidence of this syndrome is approximately 1 in 1,20,000 births. Materials and Methods: In this article, we are presenting 11 cases of PJS which were misdiagnosed and patients were compelled to visit hospital repeatedly. All these cases were diagnosed based on clinical suspicion, family history, and histopathological examination of specimens. Most of the cases presented with intussusception and required emergency surgical management. Results: PJS can be diagnosed by the presence of microscopically confirmed hamartomatous polyps and a minimum of two of the following clinical criteria: Family history, mucocutaneous melanotic spots, and small bowel polyps with bleeding per rectally. The diagnosis can be missed if the melanotic spots on the face are missed. Routine investigations, imaging, and endoscopy were done in all cases. PJS patients need regular follow-up due to chance of recurrence of symptoms and susceptibility to cancer. Conclusion: PJS needs a high index of suspicion for diagnosis in cases of recurrent abdominal pain with bleeding per rectum. Proper family history and meticulous clinical examination for melanosis are very important to prevent the misdiagnosis of these cases.
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Reasons behind patients defaulting from elective pediatric urology procedures at a tertiary private teaching hospital in South India p. 223
Athiyaman Rani Manjarie, Shibi Raj, Ramesh Babu
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.jiaps_182_22  
Aim: The aims of the study are to audit the default rate of the provisional date of elective surgery in pediatric urology private practice and to study the factors involved in the postponement of elective operation dates by patients. Patients and Methods: The audit involved analysis of reasons behind patients defaulting from elective pediatric urology procedures between January 2019 and December 2019 at a tertiary private teaching hospital in South India. The details were obtained from the outpatient register kept for elective booking. The details of actual procedures performed were obtained from OT records. From the defaulters, the reasons for postponement were obtained through personal/telephonic interview. Results: A total of 289 patients were given dates for elective procedures. Among this, 72 (24.9%) defaulted, leaving 217 patients who underwent elective surgery. Among those who underwent surgery, 90 (41%) were elective day case (DC) procedures, whereas 127 (59%) were inpatient (IP) procedures. The default rate was 26/116 (22.4%) for DC procedures, whereas 46/173 (26.6%) for IP procedures, with no significant difference between them (P = 0.64). Among the 72 defaulters, the reasons for cancellation were as follows: financial factors (FFs) 22 (30.6%), lack of family support 19 (26.4%), function/grievance in house 10 (13.9%), respiratory illness 14 (19.4%), and treatment at a different center 7 (9.7%). FF (insurance denial) was significantly higher (P = 0.001) in crucial IP procedures at 19/46 (41%) compared to DC procedures at 3/26 (12%). The various diagnoses denied insurance were UPJO (7), VUR (6), hypospadias (4), UDT (3), and PUV (2). Conclusions: FFs were mainly responsible for parents postponing their children's elective pediatric urology procedures in India. Universal insurance coverage for congenital anomalies might help overcome this most important cause of cancellations.
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Assessment of gastric residual volume with ultrasound in children at fasting and after oral intake of carbohydrate-rich fluid in the preoperative period p. 227
Keshav Kumar Garg, Aarti Agarwal, Puneet Goyal, Hira Lal, Raghunandan Prasad, Sanjay Dhiraaj, Kailash Chandra Pant, Richa Lal
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.jiaps_121_22  
Purpose: Despite standard preoperative fasting guidelines, children are subjected to prolonged fasting due to various reasons. This does not reduce gastric residual volume (GRV) further, instead causes hypoglycemia, hypovolemia, and unnecessary discomfort. We calculated the cross-sectional area (CSA) of antrum and GRV in children in fasting state and 2 h after intake of oral carbohydrate-rich fluid, using gastric ultrasound. Methods: Anteroposterior and craniocaudal gastric antral diameters were measured by ultrasonography in the right lateral decubitus position, at fasting and at 2 h after 8 ml/kg of pulp-free fruit juice ingestion. CSA of antrum and GRV was calculated using validated mathematical models. Results: Data of 149 children of age >1–12 years were analyzed. Greater than ninety-nine percent of children emptied ≥95% of the ingested pulp-free fruit juice volume within 2 h. One hundred and seven (71.8%) children had reduced CSA and GRV at 2 h after fruit juice ingestion (2.01 ± 1.00 cm2 and 7.77 ± 6.81 ml) as compared to fasting state (3.18 ± 1.40 cm2 and 11.89 ± 7.80 ml). Fourty-nine (28.2%) children had slightly increased CSA and GRV at 2 h after fruit juice (2.46 ± 1.14 cm2 and 10.61 ± 7.26 ml) than at fasting (1.89 ± 0.92 cm2 and 8.61 ± 6.75 ml), but this increased GRV was grossly lower than limit of risk stomach (26.54 ± 8.95 ml). Conclusion: Carbohydrate-rich drink in the form of pulp-free fruit juice may be safely permitted up to 2 h before anesthetic induction, as it promoted gastric emptying in ≈ 72% of children and 28% of children, although GRV was slightly higher at 2 h after fruit juice ingestion than fasting but remained considerably lower than limit of risk stomach.
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Preoperative triple-phase three-dimensional-multi-detector computed tomography imaging of the hepatic vascular tree: An accurate road map prior to tumor resection in hepatoblastoma p. 233
Aparajita Mitra, Veereshwar Bhatnagar, Sandeep Agarwala, Arun Kumar Gupta, Manisha Jana, M Srinivas, Anjan Kumar Dhua
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.jiaps_113_22  
Objective: To evaluate the hepatic vasculature/tumor relations in hepatoblastoma patients with three-dimensional (3D) reformatted images after triple-phase multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and to compare these with the surgical findings to judge the accuracy of this investigation. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in hepatoblastoma patients after appropriate neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, prior to resection. Images were postprocessed at a dedicated workstation for multi-planar reformations, maximum intensity projection, curved planar reformations, and volume-rendered technique reconstructions. The reporting was done as per a specific protocol by both the radiologist and surgeon (per-operative findings) and the accuracy of MDCT ascertained as per concordance between the surgical and imaging findings. Results: Fourteen children (13 boys, 1 girl) underwent surgery. Clinically, relevant information regarding vascular, tumor involvement, and interface with vessels was provided by the study in all cases. Although all tumors were deemed resectable on preoperative imaging, one procedure was abandoned due to an unanticipated portal cavernoma. While a few anatomical variations were unexpectedly encountered during surgery, there was good concordance overall between findings on imaging and surgical exploration. Conclusions: MDCT with 3D reformatting provides accurate virtual representations of the hepatic tumor. This allows simulation of surgical resection with decreased risk of vascular injury and postoperative liver failure.
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Posterior sagittal approach for nonanorectal malformation: Widening spectrum p. 242
Sandesh V Parelkar, Beejal V Sanghvi, Pooja Tiwari, Rahul Gupta, Rujuta Shah
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.jiaps_162_22  
Background: Posterior sagittal is a very well accepted approach in the treatment of anorectal malformations. This approach provides good access and exposure through the perineum to the deep pelvic structures. It reduces risk of injury to important structures as dissection remains in midline. Aims and Objectives: To access feasibility of posterior sagittal approach for non-anorectal malformation indications and to widen the spectrum. Material and Methods: We present a series of 10 cases of non-anorectal malformations operated by this approach for 4 years. Results: Six patients included in the study were of Disorders of Sexual Differentiation with pseudovagina, three of Y duplication of the urethra, and one of cervical atresia. All patients had good results. Conclusion: Posterior sagittal approach is feasible, safe with minimal bleeding, and no postoperative incontinence. It can safely be used for non-anorectal indications.
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Pediatric colonic anastomosis: Can method of anastomosis and wound closure be of help? p. 245
Arindam Ghosh, Somak Krishna Biswas, Tapanjyoti Ghosh, Kalyani Saha Basu, Sumitra Kumar Biswas
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.jiaps_129_22  
Background: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols after colorectal surgery focused on reduced bowel preparation, standardized feeding schedule, earlier return of bowel function, and earlier resumption of normal activities. ERAS in pediatric surgical practice is not well established. The present study aims to present the results of two colonic anastomosis techniques of interrupted single-layered closure: Halsted (Horizontal Mattress) and Matheson (serosubmucosal or appositional extramucosal) along with two different methods of colostomy wound closure and their influence on the adoption of ERAS protocol of early feeding and early discharge. Materials and Methods: This single institute-based randomized control study was conducted in a tertiary care facility in Kolkata for 2.4 years. Patients were chosen randomly for serosubmucosal (Group I) and full-thickness (Group II) anastomosis. Results: Among total of 91 patients (Group I–43 and Group II–48), Return of bowel sounds and passage of bowel averaged 1.51 ± 0.51 and 1.91 ± 0.55 days in Group I and 1.91 ± 0.57 and 3.9 ± 0.66 days in Group II, respectively. Postoperative hospital stay averaged 5.88 ± 1.12 days in Group I and 8.9 ± 1.17 days in Group II. Overall 15 (16.48%) patients had complications among which SSI (Suprficial surgical site infection) and minor leaks (Group I–3 and 1 and Group II–5 and 3, respectively) which were treated conservatively (Clavien–Dindo Grade-I) and three major leaks under Group II requiring surgical intervention (Clavien–Dindo Grade-III). Conclusion: This study concludes that the technique of colostomy closure in the form serosubmucosal closure helps in the implementation of ERAS protocol by producing early bowel movement, early initiation of food, and less postoperative complications.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Small bowel intussusception due to solitary Peutz–Jeghers Jejunal polyp: A rare entity p. 250
Bharat Kamath, Samprathi Doddamallappa, Arpit Roy, Sudhir Dhobale
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.jiaps_160_22  
Peutz–Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is characterized by mucocutaneous pigmentation with multiple hamartomatous polyps of the gastrointestinal tract and/or a familial history with autosomal dominant inheritance pattern having incomplete penetrance, with some cases arising from spontaneous mutations. We present this case of a 12-year-old female who presented with jejunojejunal intussusception and on exploration revealed a polypoidal mass around 50 cm from duodenojejunal flexure acting as a lead point. A segmental jejunal resection with anastomosis was performed and histopathology confirmed a solitary Peutz–Jeghers (PJ) hamartomatous polyp. She neither had mucocutaneous pigmentation nor family history of PJS or any other polyps anywhere in the gut on further evaluation by endoscopies. A solitary PJ polyp in the jejunum is a rare entity, and to the best of our knowledge, only around 13 cases have been reported in world literature so far. Regular follow-up is essential in young children, so that future manifestations of the PJS are not missed.
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Mucocele arising from the submandibular gland presenting as neck swelling: A rare case report p. 253
Probal Chatterji, Rajul Rastogi, Akshay Jain, Somya Choudhary, Nitanshi Jain
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.jiaps_163_22  
Mucoceles rarely involve major salivary glands. Very few cases involving the submandibular gland have been reported to date. A young male child presented with diffuse, soft, and painless swelling of the left submandibular region. Investigations suggested mucocele of the submandibular salivary gland. The mucocele was excised along with the left submandibular gland. Recovery was uneventful.
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Total glans amputation in a child following ritual circumcision – Report of a case and review of literature p. 256
Amar Shah, Anirudh Shah
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.jiaps_176_22  
Ritual circumcision in children remains a trivialized procedure in some countries, especially in rural areas. It is often performed by unqualified paramedical personnel, or even by religious workers whose notions of surgery and asepsis are uncertain. Although it is thought to be a minor procedure, major complications with sexual or even life-threatening prognosis can occur. Amputation of the glans during circumcision is a rare incidence secondary to poor application of operating principles. We report the case of a 1½-year-old boy who underwent a progressive amputation of the glans after a ritual circumcision by a religious worker. The child was brought 10 days after the procedure with totally amputated, nonsalvageable glans. A urethral meatoplasty was performed to enable proper voiding and prevent meatal stenosis. The child has been in follow-up for the past 6 months without any urinary symptoms.
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Tracheoesophageal fistula with bilateral facial cleft: A rare occurrence p. 260
Nitin James Peters, Shaswati Behera, Ramyasree Bade, Shivani Dogra, Shailesh Solanki, Ram Samujh
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.jiaps_171_22  
Commissural or lateral facial cleft (macrosomia), classified at Tessier number 7 craniofacial clefts, is a rare congenital anomaly usually associated with deformities of other structures developed from the first and second branchial arches. It affects the esthetics and functional aspect of the oral cavity. Bilateral transverse cleft occurring alone is uncommon and it's with tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) has not been reported to the best of our knowledge. We report a case of esophageal atresia (EA) and TEF with macrosomia. EA was repaired, and the patient was discharged on full feeds. He is awaiting cleft repair.
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A rare case of true pancreatic cyst p. 263
Sushma Achugatla, Surendra Singh, Rahul Deo Sharma, Rajeev Redkar, Chandralekha S Tampi
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.jiaps_150_22  
Pancreatic cysts can be true or pseudocysts. True pancreatic cysts in children are rare clinical entities. We present a 23-month-old boy with a cystic lesion in the distal body and tail of the pancreas which on histopathology was found to be a rare true congenital simple cyst of the pancreas.
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Top

Isolated urethral varices: An unusual cause of hematuria after urethroplasty p. 266
MM Zameer, C Vinay, Prashanth Kulkarni, Sanjay Rao
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.jiaps_6_23  
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Osseous metaplasia in a juvenile rectal polyp: A rarely encountered histopathological finding p. 267
Tushar Kalonia, Neha Kumari, Dezy Singh, Arvind Kumar, Rajan Mohan, Intezar Ahmed
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.jiaps_148_22  
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Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor in a Child Presented as Subacute Intestinal Obstruction Associated with Pancreatitis p. 268
Keerthana Bachala, Ramjeewan Singh, Amit Kumar Sinha, Bindey Kumar, Tarun Kumar
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.jiaps_136_22  
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