Home | About Us | Current Issue | Ahead of print | Archives | Search | Instructions | Subscription | Feedback | Editorial Board | e-Alerts | Login 
Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
     Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
Official journal of the Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons         
 Users Online:1945 
  Print this page Email this page   Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size


 
Table of Contents   
CASE REPORT
Year : 2023  |  Volume : 28  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 260-262
 

Tracheoesophageal fistula with bilateral facial cleft: A rare occurrence


Department of Pediatric Surgery, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Date of Submission06-Dec-2022
Date of Decision25-Jan-2023
Date of Acceptance11-Feb-2023
Date of Web Publication02-May-2023

Correspondence Address:
Nitin James Peters
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh - 160 012
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jiaps.jiaps_171_22

Rights and Permissions

 

   Abstract 


Commissural or lateral facial cleft (macrosomia), classified at Tessier number 7 craniofacial clefts, is a rare congenital anomaly usually associated with deformities of other structures developed from the first and second branchial arches. It affects the esthetics and functional aspect of the oral cavity. Bilateral transverse cleft occurring alone is uncommon and it's with tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) has not been reported to the best of our knowledge. We report a case of esophageal atresia (EA) and TEF with macrosomia. EA was repaired, and the patient was discharged on full feeds. He is awaiting cleft repair.


Keywords: Bilateral macrosomia, craniofacial clefts, Tessier number 7, tracheoesophageal fistula


How to cite this article:
Peters NJ, Behera S, Bade R, Dogra S, Solanki S, Samujh R. Tracheoesophageal fistula with bilateral facial cleft: A rare occurrence. J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg 2023;28:260-2

How to cite this URL:
Peters NJ, Behera S, Bade R, Dogra S, Solanki S, Samujh R. Tracheoesophageal fistula with bilateral facial cleft: A rare occurrence. J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg [serial online] 2023 [cited 2023 May 31];28:260-2. Available from: https://www.jiaps.com/text.asp?2023/28/3/260/375524





   Introduction Top


Failed embryonic fusion of mandibular and maxillary processes of the first branchial arch results in lateral or commissural facial clefts with bilateral macrostomia. These are rare and usually associated with deformities of structures developed from the involved arches. Such deformities might include varying degrees of skeletal hypoplasia, discontinuity of facial bones, orofacial clefts, and airway abnormalities. Other syndromic features such as velopharyngeal insufficiencies, sensorineural deafness, cleft lip–palate complex, external auricular anomalies, colobomas, and cardiac anomalies should be anticipated and ruled out preoperatively.[1]

Our index case had esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) associated with bilateral commissural fissures. Such bilateral macrosomia with EA/TEF has not been described to the best of our knowledge. We managed this case with the repair of the EA/TEF and the patient is awaiting lateral cleft repair.


   Case Report Top


A full-term, 2700 g male baby, born by normal vaginal delivery was referred to our center on day 2 of life with complaints of drooling of saliva from the mouth and respiratory distress since birth. The baby had passed urine and meconium soon after birth and was not fed. The baby was hemodynamically stable and had a fair cry tone activity. On examination, the baby had dysmorphic facies with bilateral low-set ears and commissural defects [Figure 1]a. The presence of preauricular appendages (pretragal skin tags) and macroglossia [Figure 1b] was also remarkable.
Figure 1: (a) Baby with macrosomia, bilateral facial clefts, and salivary drool. (b) Bilateral low-set ears with pretragal appendages

Click here to view


The patient had intermittent chest retractions on both sides without any episodes of desaturation or cyanosis. No other abnormalities were detectable on physical examination.

The bedside orogastric tube was introduced, reaching up to 12 cm. Chest radiograph showed coiling of the nasogastric tube at the level of the 3rd thoracic vertebra [Figure 2]a. A preoperative echocardiogram showed a structurally normal heart with normal biventricular function. Ultrasonography of the cranium and renal system was grossly normal.
Figure 2: (a) Radiograph with OG Coil at T3. (b) Postoperative radiograph

Click here to view


After adequate resuscitation, the baby was taken up for surgery on day 3 of hospitalization.

Under general anesthesia, intubation was done with the help of a concurrent media access control video laryngoscope anticipating a difficult airway. The baby underwent a right posterolateral thoracotomy with an extra-pleural approach. Intraoperatively, a wide TEF of 1 cm arising from a distal pouch was delineated and divided between ligatures. The upper esophageal pouch was healthy and well-developed, while the lower pouch was moderately developed with an intervening gap of 1.5 cm. The repair was done primarily with the help of polyglactin 5-0 intermittent sutures in a single layer.

Postoperatively, the baby was shifted intubated to the neonatal surgical ICU. The patient was weaned off gradually from continuous positive airway pressure and extubated on the 3rd postoperative day with normal lung shadow on the chest radiograph [Figure 2]b.

Feeds in the form of expressed breast milk were started on day 2 after surgery through a nasogastric tube and gradually increased. The patient was fed by palady and eventually by a long nipple bottle, used for managing cleft babies.

The baby is doing well on a close follow-up of 1 year including visits to the otolaryngology and plastic surgery clinic. Surgical management of the lateral cleft is awaited.


   Discussion Top


Congenital macrosomia is a rare anomaly arising due to abnormal fusion of the first branchial arch during the embryonic period. Thus, associated anomalies could be the derivatives of first or second branchial arches. Lateral clefts are the next common orofacial clefts, second only to isolated cleft lips, with an incidence of 1 in every 3500–5000 live births.[2] Tessier number 7 craniofacial clefts, also referred to as temporozygomatic facial clefts or transverse facial clefts, are the most laterally located subtype of craniofacial clefts. Tessier number 7 is positioned on the line between the corner of the mouth and the ear. This is a rare congenital anomaly, with a frequency of 1/60,000–1/300,000 normal births, and is characterized by soft-tissue abnormalities, such as macrosomia, external ear deformity, and hemifacial microsomia. Bilateral clefts are further uncommon and scarcely reported in the literature.[1],[3] Sometimes, intrauterine amniotic band compression may result in such a presentation. These deformities may range from a simple widening of the oral aperture to a full-thickness oral defect.

Babies suffering from Treacher Collins syndrome or Goldenhar syndrome are reported to have wide oral apertures or facial clefts. Treacher Collins syndrome causes typical facial dysmorphism including transverse facial clefts. Goldenhar syndrome might affect the cardiovascular, renal, and central nervous systems.[4] The index case did not have the typical features or corroboration with the abovementioned clinical syndromes. Some of these cases are described with overlapping deformities as vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, TEF, and renal and limb anomalies.[5] However, the workup in our index case had no abnormalities, thus ruling out other associated syndromes.

In case of other associated anomalies, such as EA-TEF, a well-planned surgical and anesthetic approach is mandatory along with staged repair of the cleft anomalies.


   Conclusion Top


Babies with macrosomia or facial clefts may be syndromic and associated with life-threatening systemic defects that need prompt attention. Difficult or atypical airways with bony dysplasia are important from an anesthetic point of view. Aerodigestive anomalies such as TEF and EA should be kept in mind while examining these patients. Treatment options are variable and individualized, ranging from simple closure of orofacial muscles to formal cleft repair and surgical repair of other anomalies such as TEF in the index case.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Mohan RP, Verma S, Agarwal N, Singh U. Bilateral macrostomia. BMJ Case Rep 2013;2013:bcr2013010429.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Askar I, Gurlek A, Sevin K. Lateral facial clefts (macrostomia). Ann Plast Surg 2001;47:355-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Isik D, Tercan M, Bekerecioglu M. Tessier no. 7 unilateral cleft: Two case reports. Eastern J Med 2011;16:90-3.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Kargl S, Malek M, Pumberger W. A newborn with esophageal atresia and a large, asymmetric mouth. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol Extra 2015;10:84-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Sutphen R, Galan-Gomez E, Cortada X, Newkirk PN, Kousseff BG. Tracheoesophageal anomalies in oculoauriculovertebral (Goldenhar) spectrum. Clin Genet 1995;48:66-71.  Back to cited text no. 5
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article

    

 
  Search
 
  
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Article in PDF (762 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


    Abstract
   Introduction
   Case Report
   Discussion
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed206    
    Printed20    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded12    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


Contact us | Sitemap | Advertise | What's New | Copyright and Disclaimer | Privacy Notice

  2005 - Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow 

Online since 1st May '05