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Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
     Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
Official journal of the Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons         
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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 216-222

Growth and development assessment of children (1–5 years) operated for tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia: A case control study


1 National Institute of Nursing Education, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Paediatric Surgery, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India
3 Department of Paediatrics, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Geetanjli Kalyan
Tutor, PhD Scholar, National Institute of Nursing Education, PGIMER, Chandigarh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_35_20

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Introduction: Among children, esophageal atresia (EA) with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is one of the major and common congenital anomalies. It is a life-threatening emergency and at birth may be associated with three C's coughing, choking, and cyanosis. It requires surgical interventions in the early neonatal period. The postsurgical period is associated with poor growth which can be developmental outcomes particularly in the first 5 years of life and attributed to postsurgical complications. The aim of the study is to assess and compare the growth and development of the children (1–5 years) operated for TEF/EA attending Pediatric Surgery OPD/admitted inwards at APC, PGIMER, Chandigarh versus healthy controls. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was conducted on age-matched 40 children aged between 1 and 5 years operated for TEF/EA and healthy controls. The sampling technique for cases was total enumeration and for controls was purposive sampling. Tools used were socio-demographic sheets of children, clinical profile of children, Trivandrum Development Screening chart, and Vineland Social Maturity Scale for Indian adaptation. Results: Majority 33 (82.5%) of children had distal TEF and more than two-third 28 (70%) have undergone primary repair. More than one-third 14 (35%) had a respiratory infection, 12 (30%) anastomosis leakage and 6 (15%) had Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) as one of the early and late postoperative complications. More than one-fourth 11 (27.5%) of TEF/EA operated children had less weight, 11 (30%) had less height and 16 (40%) had less weight for height for their reference age. A significant difference was found for height for age, weight for height, and social maturity among children who had TEF repair as compared to their healthy counterparts. Conclusion: Growth monitoring reflected (more than one-fourth of children were underweight and stunted while more than one-third were wasted) and showed development delay in TEF/EA operated children as compared to healthy controls.






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