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Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
     Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
Official journal of the Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons         
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   2017| July-September  | Volume 22 | Issue 3  
    Online since June 8, 2017

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Two stages repair of proximal hypospadias: Review of 700 cases
Arvind Kumar Shukla, Aditya Pratap Singh, Pramila Sharma, Jyotsna Shukla
July-September 2017, 22(3):158-162
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.207627  PMID:28694573
Objective: Surgical repair of hypospadias is challenging and problematic even for the most experienced specialists, and this is especially true when severe and complicated case is confronted. Many operations had been described for the management of this deformity. Materials and Methods: During the period from May 2004 to December 2015, we performed 700 cases with proximal hypospadias, at our institute in the Department of Pediatric Surgery by a single surgeon. Data were collected retrospectively and included patient's age at operation, degree of the hypospadias, degree of associated chordee, complications, and cosmetic outcome. All patients underwent 2 two-stage procedures with 9–12 months interval in between. Results: Seven hundred patients with proximal hypospadias were operated upon in a period of 11 years. Byars's 2 two-stage operation was used in all 700 cases. Neither complete disruption nor urethral diverticula occurred 2 two-stage procedures in the 700 patients. 677 (96.7%) patients had no complication. Fistula was present in 21 (3%) patients. There was no case of meatal stenosis in our study. Conclusion: Two stages procedure using the principles of Byar's technique is a versatile operation that can be used for 2 two-stage procedures the proximal hypospadias. It decreases the rate of fistula formation, disruption, and stenosis and gives a satisfactory cosmetic appearance.
  4,751 176 -
The role of routine measurement of intra-abdominal pressure in preventing abdominal compartment syndrome
G Raghavendra Prasad, JV Subba Rao, Amtul Aziz, TM Rashmi
July-September 2017, 22(3):134-138
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_222_15  PMID:28694568
Introduction: Abdomen, a closed compartment, is prone to raised intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in the postoperative period. After a critical value of ≥ 15 cm of water, IAP produces abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). ACS leads to reduced venous return, reduced cardiac output, and domino effect of organ dysfunction, leading to death. Hence, it is the need of hour to monitor IAP to pick up intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and ACS. This routine facilitates early institution of treatment measures. Aims and Objectives: To study IAP in abdominal operations in neonates, infants, and older children and to promote concept of routine measurement of IAP as standard care. Materials and Methods: Intravesical route was used to measure IAP in this prospective observational study. Seventy-nine pediatric abdominal surgeries met with criteria of availability of complete data for analysis and formed the cohort of the study. All major, infective, traumatic, tumor-related abdominal surgeries were included in the study. Outcome, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin, platelet counts, Simplified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score were the parameters analyzed. The World Society of ACS grading was adopted in the study with subdivision of normal into low-normal and high-normal subgroups. Results: Extended Mantel–Haenszel Chi-square statistical tool when applied for linear relationship showed a linear relationship with outcome (P < 0.05), CRP (P < 0.05), procalcitonin (P < 0.05), Simplified Sequential organ failure Assessment Score, and APACHE II. Platelet counts (P > 0.05) were not significantly correlated. Decision for laparotomy was delayed in cases of ACS. Conclusion: Routine measure of IAP facilitates early recognition of IAH. This facilitates therapeutic measures to be initiated to reduce IAP. Early decision to decompress by laparotomy/laparostomy saves lives. Hence, routine IAP measurement should be a part of standard care in pediatric abdominal surgery.
  3,657 183 -
Pediatric ventriculoperitoneal shunts and their complications: An analysis
Nitin Agarwal, Ram Mohan Shukla, Deepika Agarwal, Kaustubh Gupta, Rohtash Luthra, Jalaj Gupta, Sunny Jain
July-September 2017, 22(3):155-157
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.207624  PMID:28694572
Introduction: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is the most commonly utilized shunting procedure because of the capacity of the peritoneum to resorb fluid. Initial and subsequent peritoneal catheter placements can be done with relative ease. They are associated with a variety of complications. Materials and Methods: The total number of patients operated in the study period was 96. We studied 41 operated patients of VP shunt who had various shunt-related complications and analyzed the predisposing risk factors and spectrum of complications. Results: The mean age was 28 ± 32 months out of which 28 were males and 13 females. The etiology of hydrocephalus was aqueductal stenosis in 18, Arnold Chiari malformation in 10, Dandy–Walker malformation in 2, postmeningitis in 8 (pyogenic in 5 and tubercular in 3), postintraventricular hemorrhage in 2 patients and postencephalocele surgery in 1. Conclusion: With this retrospective review of complications of VP shunts, age at initial shunt insertion and the interval between the age of initial shunt placement and onset of complications were the most important patient-related predictors of shunt failure. The different predominant etiological factors responsible for early and late shunt failure were infective and mechanical complications, respectively.
  3,254 133 -
Immunohistochemistry in ureteropelvic junction obstruction and its correlation to postoperative outcome
Anusiri Inugala, Ramesh Kota Reddy, Bhuvaneshwar Nadipalli Rao, Sreenivas P Reddy, Radhika Othuluru, Lavanya Kanniyan, Nagarjuna Kumbha, Srinivas Srirampur
July-September 2017, 22(3):129-133
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_254_16  PMID:28694567
Aim: To investigate the correlation between the status of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and the resected ureteric margin and the postoperative outcome of Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty in UPJ obstruction (UPJO) and to compare the ICC in the UPJ and the resected margin of the normal ureter. Materials and Methods: An observational study was conducted over a period of 2 years at the Department of Pediatric Surgery at Niloufer Institute of Women and Child Health. Children with intrinsic UPJO who underwent Anderson-Hynes dismembered pyeloplasty were included in the study. Six months postoperatively, the patients were divided into two groups based on diuretic isotopic renogram using technetium-99m-labeled diethylene triaminepentaacetic acid. Group 1 comprised patients with good surgical outcome. Group 2 comprised patients with a poor outcome. The histologic specimens were evaluated for ICC, and the immunohistochemical findings were correlated with the outcome. Results: Twenty-five patients were included in this study (19 male and 6 female). Seventy-six percent of patients were under the age of 1 year. Group 1 had 23 cases and Group 2 had 2 cases. Out of the two patients with a poor outcome, one had negative grading at the UPJ and one had positive grading. Both these patients had a negative grading at the lower resected margins. More number of patients (24%) had +++ grading at the lower resected margin when compared to the UPJ (8%). Conclusion: This is the first study which correlates the status of ICC in UPJ with the outcome of pyeloplasty in pediatric patients. Both the cases with bad outcome had no ICC at the lower margin of the resected specimen and one case had no ICC at the UPJ. There is a statistically significant difference (P = 0.001) in the number of ICC at the UPJ and the resected margin.
  3,055 175 -
Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction in children: Role of preoperative imaging
Shashidhar Achar, Hemonta Kumar Dutta, Rudra Kanta Gogoi
July-September 2017, 22(3):144-149
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.207634  PMID:28694570
Aim: Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) is characterized by features of recent thrombosis or portal hypertension with portal cavernoma as a sequel of portal vein obstruction. Imaging of spleno-portal axis is the mainstay for the diagnosis of EHPVO. The aim of this study is to analyze the role of imaging in the preoperative assessment of the portal venous system in children with EHPVO. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on twenty children with EHPVO aged between 1 and 18 years over a period of 1 year. The children were evaluated clinically, followed by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Radiological assessment included imaging of the main portal vein, its right and left branches, splenic vein, and superior mesenteric vein using color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUSG) and magnetic resonance portovenogram (MRP). Evidence of portal biliopathy, status of collaterals, and possible sites for portosystemic shunt surgery were also examined. Results: All the patients presented in chronic stage with portal cavernoma and only one patient (5%) had bland thrombus associated with cavernoma. The CDUSG and MRPs had a sensitivity of 66.6-90% and 96.7% and specificity of 91.5% and 98.3% respectively with regard to the assessment of the extent of thrombus formation and flow in the portal venous system. Both the modalities were found to be complementary to each other in preoperative assessment of EHPVO. However, the sensitivity of MRP was slightly superior to CDUSG in detecting occlusion and identifying portosystemic collaterals and dilated intrahepatic biliary radicals. Conclusion: Results of the present study indicate that MRP is well suited and superior to CDUSG in the preoperative imaging of patients with EHPVO.
  3,110 119 -
Clitoral choristoma: A rare case report
Jayalaxmi Shripati Aihole, Hemalatha Lokanath, M Narendra Babu, J Deepak
July-September 2017, 22(3):163-164
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.207642  PMID:28694574
Clitoral hypertrophy is usually seen as a congenital malformation, specifically during the stages of hormonal expressions in the disorders of sexual development. Acquired clitoral hypertrophy is a relatively rare condition. Clitoris can be the site of neoplastic lesions. Clitoral choristoma has not been reported so far in the literature.
  2,876 91 -
Male gender and prematurity are risk factors for incarceration in pediatric inguinal hernia: A study of 922 children
Amine Ksia, Meriem Braiki, Wissal Ouaghnan, Sami Sfar, Seloua Ammar, Sabrine Ben Youssef, Bochra Boussaffara, Lassaad Sahnoun, Mongi Mekki, Mohsen Belghith, Abdellatif Nouri
July-September 2017, 22(3):139-143
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_166_16  PMID:28694569
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to document clinical features of inguinal hernia (IH) in the pediatric population. It provides data to evaluate associated risk factors of incarcerated hernia, its recurrence as well as the occurrence of contralateral metachronous hernia. Materials and Methods: We report a retrospective analytic study including 922 children presenting with IH and operated from 2010 to 2013 in our pediatric surgery department. Results: We managed 143 girls (16%) and 779 boys (84%). The mean age was 2 years; the right side was predominantly affected (66.8%, n = 616). Incarcerated hernia was documented in 16% of cases with an incidence of 33% in neonates. The incarceration occurrence was 15.5% in males versus 2.09% in females. The surgical repair was done according to Forgue technique. Postoperatively, four cases of hernia recurrence were documented, and contralateral metachronous hernia was reported in 33 children with 7.7% females versus 2.8% males. Forty-five percent of them were infants. The mean follow-up period was 4 years. We think that incarceration can be related to several risk factors such as feminine gender, prematurity, and the initial left side surgical repair of the hernia. Conclusion: IH occurs mainly in male infants. Prematurity and male gender were identified as risk factors of incarceration. Contralateral metachronous hernia was reported, especially in female infants and after a left side surgical repair of the hernia.
  2,795 112 -
Leydig cell tumor of testis in a child: An uncommon presentation
Madhumita Mukhopadhyay, Chhanda Das, Sucharita Sarkar, Biswanath Mukhopadhyay, Bedabrata Mukhopadhyay, Rishavdeb Patra
July-September 2017, 22(3):181-183
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_4_17  PMID:28694581
Leydig cell tumors (LCTs) are rare testicular tumors. Incidence is 1%–3% of all testicular neoplasms, bilateral in 10%. They are frequently hormonally active, leading to feminizing or virilizing syndromes. LCTs can be either pure or mixed with germ cell tumors or other sex cord-stromal tumors. Here, we are reporting a benign pure LCT in a 6-year-old boy presented with pseudopuberty.
  2,779 77 -
Video-Assisted thoracoscopic surgery for pediatric empyema by two-port technique: A single-center experience with 167 consecutive cases
Sandesh V Parelkar, Shalil H Patil, Beejal V Sanghvi, Rahul Kumar Gupta, Satej S Mhaskar, Rujuta S Shah, Pooja Tiwari, Arjun A Pawar
July-September 2017, 22(3):150-154
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_167_16  PMID:28694571
Background/Purpose: The aim of our study is to determine efficacy, safety, and feasibility of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in childhood empyema with a technique of only two ports and open instruments at a tertiary care center in India. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients below 18 years, with empyema presenting to the Department of Pediatric Surgery of a Tertiary Care Referral Hospital in India, over a period of 9 years who underwent VATS decortication. Only two ports with open surgical instruments were used. The patients were assessed on the basis of mean duration of preoperative symptoms, duration of surgery, average blood loss, postoperative pain relief, complications, and need for redo surgery. Results: A total of 97 patients underwent primary VATS decortications without inserting an intercostal drainage (ICD) tube and 70 patients as a secondary procedure after ICD tube was inserted. Mean duration of symptoms was 11 days. The average blood loss during surgery was estimated to be 170 cc. The mean duration of surgery was 90 min. The most common postoperative complication was air leak seen in 19.16% of patients. Minor leaks usually settled by 24 h. In eight patients, a negative suction had to be applied to the ICD tube for persistent air leak. The average length of postoperative stay was 4 days. Two patients required a repeat open decortication procedure due to nonresolution of symptoms and poor lung expansion after VATS. Patients had minimal pain and excellent cosmetic outcome after VATS. Conclusion: Two-port VATS decortication procedure is as feasible and effective as three-port procedure for decortication with better cosmetic result and pain relief.
  2,710 127 -
Zollinger–Ellison syndrome in a 12-year-old child
Abir Lal Nath, Nandita A Saxena, Bharati K Kulkarni, Shyam S Borwankar, Hemant N Lahoti, Sanjay N Oak
July-September 2017, 22(3):168-169
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.207623  PMID:28694576
The syndrome described by Zollinger and Ellison in 1955 is a rare clinical entity which is even rarer in children. This report describes a 12-year-old boy who presented with refractory peptic ulcer disease which was finally diagnosed to be due to a gastrinoma and was successfully treated.
  2,502 61 -
Kawasaki disease presenting as acute intestinal obstruction
Yasir Ahmad Lone, Jagadeesh Menon, Prema Menon, Kim Vaiphei, Katragadda Lakshmi Narasimha Rao, Baburam Thapa, Kirti Gupta
July-September 2017, 22(3):170-172
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.207632  PMID:28694577
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile illness of childhood associated with vasculitis of medium-sized arteries especially the coronary arteries. Typical clinical features involving the skin, mucous surfaces, etc., occur sequentially over a few days. We report a rare presentation of KD as a surgical abdomen in a 2-year-old boy. Awareness of this presentation is important as it can otherwise lead to a delay in starting potentially life-saving intervention like intravenous immunoglobulins for cardiac complications kept cryptic by the manifest acute abdomen.
  2,406 72 -
Surgical repair of congenital abdominal aortic aneurysm in a 1-year-old child with literature review
Ashwani Bansal, Aparajita Mitra, Akshay Kumar Bisoi, Sandeep Agarwala
July-September 2017, 22(3):176-178
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_258_16  PMID:28694579
Reported here is a case of 1-year-old male child who presented with huge abdominal mass, which on radiological investigation was diagnosed as retroperitoneal pseudoaneurysm of the aorta. On exploration, it was found to be a true aneurysm of infrarenal abdominal aorta with inflow agenesis. Aneurysm was excised, and aorta was reconstructed with 10 mm Dacron graft. Postoperative computed tomography angiography showed patent graft with good distal runoff. Literature review revealed that only 26 cases of congenital abdominal aortic aneurysm had been reported so far. None of them had inflow agenesis which can give false impression of pseudoaneurysm on preoperative evaluation. The case highlights the utility of additional complimentary investigations such as Doppler study in clinching diagnosis and helping plan and execute successful treatment in the difficult diagnostic scenario.
  2,398 59 -
Simple technique of bridging wide gap in esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula – “surgical innovation”
AK Sharma, D Mangal
July-September 2017, 22(3):187-188
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_220_16  PMID:28694583
The survival of the patients with esophageal atresia an tracheo esophageal fistula is believed to be an epitome of the success of the neonatal surgery. Restoring the continuty of the food pipe by esophagus to esophagus anastomosis is the best option. Preservation of natural esophagus by delayed repair in a wide gap esophageal atresia is a preferred technique worldwide, however such a management required prolonged hospitalization and dedicated nursing care, which is often not available in most of the centres in India. Esophageal substitutes in wide gap requires multiple operations and have long term problems, so remains the last option. I use the technique of oblique anastomosis which had distrinct advantage over circular anastomosis in the management of esophageal atresia1.This techniqe helps in bridging wide gap to some extent & minimal stricture formation.
  2,298 144 -
Pleomorphic lipoma of the neck in an infant: A rare clinical entity
Ram Samujh, Nitin James Peters, Ashish Chhabra, Ali Hussein Almudeer
July-September 2017, 22(3):184-186
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_17_17  PMID:28694582
Lipomas are rare in the pediatric age group. A 10-month-old male child presented with an asymptomatic neck mass which was evaluated and excised completely. Histopathology was consistent with pleomorphic lipoma, not previously reported in children.
  2,277 57 -
Early thoracoscopic plication of diaphragm in a newborn with brachial plexus palsy and concurrent phrenic nerve palsy
Saurabh Shyam Garge, Gouri Rao Passi, Devendra Ghanekar
July-September 2017, 22(3):165-167
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.207622  PMID:28694575
Phrenic nerve palsy is a rare cause of respiratory distress in a newborn. When conservative measures fail to achieve adequate ventilation, then early surgical plication has been found to be associated with good outcome. We report a case of neonate with phrenic nerve palsy in whom an early thoracoscopic diaphragmatic plication was done.
  2,203 69 -
Retrocaval ureter: Clinical images
Pradeep Agrawal, Ravi Prakash Kanojia, Akshay Saxena
July-September 2017, 22(3):189-190
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.207633  PMID:28694584
Retrocaval ureter (RCU) is a rare congenital anomaly with the ureter looping around inferior vena cava (IVC). We present the case of 10-year-old boy. Diagnosis was confirmed with ultrasound and CT. He underwent retroperitoneoscopic uretero-ureterostomy.
  2,173 80 -
A sharp lesson: Duodenal perforation 2 months after ingestionof a pin
Rebecca Amy Dalrymple, Kathleen Berry, Ingo Jester
July-September 2017, 22(3):179-180
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_250_16  PMID:28694580
An 11-year-old female child presented 2 months after accidentally swallowing her hijab pin, with right-sided abdominal pain. An X-ray showed that the pin was located in her right upper quadrant, and at laparoscopy, it was found to have eroded through her duodenum into her liver. Ingested pins should always be removed if not passed spontaneously within the first few days.
  2,159 60 -
Mesenteric leiomyoma in infancy
Henrique Pavan, Marcos Frata Rihl, Sergio Luiz Oliveira de Freitas
July-September 2017, 22(3):173-175
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_143_16  PMID:28694578
A 10-year-old female presented with a palpable mass occupying the entire abdomen. Computerized tomography scan showed a large expansive lesion measuring 22 cm × 20 cm × 13 cm. The mass was resected and the diagnosis of leiomyoma was made from immunehistochemical findings. Mesenteric leiomyoma is an uncommon tumor among gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
  2,026 62 -
Duplicate bladder exstrophy with hypospadias: A rare exstrophy variant with unusual association
Bibekanand Jindal, K Lalatendu Kumar, Sadasivan Jagdish
July-September 2017, 22(3):192-193
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.207625  PMID:28694586
  1,968 64 -
Coexistence of both bronchogenic and esophageal duplication cyst in a single mass: An interesting coincidence
Akanksha Jain, Shilpi Agarwal, Anamika Kashyap, Anu Beniwal
July-September 2017, 22(3):193-195
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.207628  PMID:28694587
  1,931 50 -
Delayed presentation of congenital colonic stenosis
Saravanan Natarajan, R Vijayshankar, Manikandhan Periasamy, Saminathan Rangasamy, Ravichandran Ramasamy
July-September 2017, 22(3):191-192
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_232_16  PMID:28694585
  1,820 68 -
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