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Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
     Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
Official journal of the Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons         
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2018
Volume 23 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-54

Online since Wednesday, December 27, 2017

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EDITORIAL  

Vision 2022 p. 1
Ashoke Kumar Basu
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_241_17  PMID:29386755
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PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS Top

Presidential address at 43rd Annual conference of the indian association of pediatric surgeons (IAPSCON 2017), Kolkata, September 21–24, 2017 p. 2
SN Kureel
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_217_17  PMID:29386756
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Anterior sagittal anorectoplasty with external sphincter preservation for the treatment of recto-vestibular fistula: A new approach p. 4
Mohamed Ibrahim Elsawaf, Mohamed S Hashish
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_2_17  PMID:29386757
Context: To our knowledge, there is no description of anterior sagittal anorectoplasty (ASARP) with external anal sphincter preservation and passing neorectum in the middle of muscle complex under direct vision for the treatment of recto-vestibular fistula (VF). Aim: This study evaluates a new modification combining ASARP with under vision sphincter preservation. Subjects and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on thirty female infants with VF. Procedure starts with a vertical midline incision extending from ectopic opening to posterior limit of external sphincter. Sharp dissection of the fistula is carried out. Artery forceps is passed at the center of muscle complex under vision, then neorectum is placed in the middle of the muscle complex. We introduced a new scoring system based on parental interview assessing functional outcome. Each patient was given a score between 0 and 20; good: 14–20, fair: 7–13, and poor: 0–6. Results: ASARP was performed at a mean age of 2.6 months, a mean weight of 5.2 kg, a mean operative time of 102 min, and a mean hospital stay of 3.6 days. Wound infection occurred in four cases, seven cases had perianal excoriations, six cases had anal stenosis, and only one case complained of anal displacement. Patients followed for a mean of 18.8 months. Majority of our patients (50%) had good score (mean = 16.8), normal frequency, no or mild soiling, normal anal position with no or mild stenosis. Fourteen patients had fair score (mean = 10.5). Only one had poor outcome with severe soiling and perineal excoriation. Conclusion: Our modification offers optimal correction, with minimal sphincteric damage, without additional complexity or difficulties. Scoring system is simple, practical, and truly reflects early functional and parent satisfaction after surgery.
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Challenges in management of pediatric life-threatening neck and chest trauma p. 10
Shilpa Sharma, Biplab Mishra, Amit Gupta, Kapil Dev Soni, Richa Aggarwal, Subodh Kumar
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_49_17  PMID:29386758
Introduction: Neck and thoracic trauma in children pose unforeseen challenges requiring variable management strategies. Here, we describe some unusual cases. Patients and Methods: Pediatric cases of unusual neck and thoracic trauma prospectively managed from April 2012 to March 2014 at a Level 1 trauma center were studied for management strategies, outcome, and follow-up. Results: Six children with a median age of 5.5 (range 2–10) years were managed. Mechanism of injury was road traffic accident, fall from height and other accidental injury in 2, 3 and 1 patient respectively. The presentation was respiratory distress and quadriplegia, exposed heart, penetrating injury in neck, dysphagia and dyspnea, and swelling over the chest wall in 1, 1, 1, 2 and 1 cases respectively. Injuries included lung laceration, open chest wall, vascular injury of the neck, tracheoesophageal fistula (2), and chest wall posttraumatic pyomyositis. One patient had a flare of miliary tuberculosis. Immediate management included chest wall repair; neck exploration and repair, esophagostomy, gastroesophageal stapling, and feeding jejunostomy (followed by gastric pull-up 8 months later). Chest tube insertion and total parenteral nutrition was required in one each. 2 and 4 patients required tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation. The patient with gastric pull-up developed a stricture of the esophagogastric anastomosis that was revised at 26-month follow-up. At follow-up of 40–61 months, five patients are well. One patient with penetrating neck injury suffered from blindness due to massive hemorrhage from the vascular injury in the neck and brain ischemia with only peripheral vision recovery. Conclusion: Successful management of neck and chest wall trauma requires timely appropriate decisions with a team effort.
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Tubeless pediatric percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Assessment of feasibility and safety p. 16
Ramaiah Keshavamurthy, Sumit Kumar, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan Karthikeyan, Ashwin Mallya, Girish Gurubasappa Nelivigi
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_22_17  PMID:29386759
Introduction: Tubeless pediatric percutaneous nephrolithotomy (TL-PCNL) is evolving and adult criteria are being safely applied to children. We examine the feasibility, safety, and outcomes of pediatric TL. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of pediatric (≤18 years) PCNL patients at our institute was done. Patients eligible for TL but underwent tube (T) PCNL due to surgeon choice or protocol were compared with TL. Only children with 100% stone clearance were included, and those receiving nephrostomy for intraoperative complications were excluded from the study. Demographic, baseline, and stone characteristics were matched. Safety, outcome, and complications were assessed. Group T was classified into large bore (22F-LB) and small bore (16F-SB) based on nephrostomy size. Statistical analysis was done. Results: A total of 46 children were eligible - TL in 17 (37%) and T in 29 (63%). Among T, SB was performed in 6/29 (20.7%) and LB in 23/29 (79.3%). TL had fewer complications. Urinary leak developed in 2 (6.9%) patients in T. Eight (27.6%) patients in T and 3 (17.7%) patients in TL had supracostal access with complications similar to infracostal access. SB had significantly lesser and analgesic requirement than LB. SB and TL had similar LOH and analgesic requirement. Adult expanded criteria such as supracostal access, 2 punctures, prior renal surgery, and larger tract size were feasible. Conclusions: TL is safe, feasible, and less morbid alternative to T in uncomplicated pediatric nephrolithiasis. TL is feasible with supracostal access, 2 punctures, adult tract size (24F), and anomalous kidneys. SB nephrostomy is reasonable when tube is indicated.
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Multiloculated cystic renal tumors of childhood: Has the final word been spoken p. 22
Jujju Jacob Kurian, Susan Jehangir, Anila Korula
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_224_16  PMID:29386760
Background: Multicystic renal tumors which include cystic nephroma, cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma (CPDN) and cystic Wilms tumor has been a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Histopathological examination has been the only reliable differentiating method. Management of these tumors is still riddled with controversy as a definitive preoperative differentiation between the three has not been possible. Methods: A retrospective evaluation was performed of the treatment strategies employed with nine cases of multicystic renal tumors treated from 2005 to 2015. Results: The median age at presentation was 12 months with all except one being boys. All except two children underwent primary surgery. The median follow-up was 50 months with six children having long-term survival. One child succumbed to the disease process, one died due to an unrelated cause and another was lost to follow-up. Although there was no ambiguity with cases of cystic nephroma (CN) and cystic Wilms tumor, three of the four cases of CPDN had problems. Conclusion: Primary surgery for multicystic renal tumors is safe and should be seriously considered as it prevents overtreatment in cases of CN and early stage CPDN. Further studies are needed to fully understand the biological behavior of CPDN.
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IschioPubic osteotomy, A simple and effective technique for pelvic ring closure in repair of classic exstrophy bladder p. 27
Kanoujia Sunil, Shiv Narain Kureel, Archika Gupta, Anand Pandey, Ashish Wakhlu, JileDar Rawat
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_206_17  PMID:29386761
Aim: The aim of this study is to report the technique and outcome of ischiopubic (IP) osteotomy for pelvic ring closure in classic exstrophy bladder. Methods: A total of 85 male classic exstrophies were selected based on trapezoid-shaped space between IP ramus on three-dimensional computed tomography pelvis. Using midline scroto-perineal approach, after bladder plate mobilization and radical corporal detachment; the pelvic surface of superior pubic ramus (SPR) was exposed. Above the obturator canal, H-shaped incision was made on periosteum of the SPR. The horizontal line of H was placed above the obturator canal. Rectangular periosteal flaps above and below the horizontal line was raised. In the subperiosteal plane, curved hemostats encircled the SPR that were divided using a bone drill. On the medial aspect of ischial tuberosity, a notch was created as hinge using a bone drill. Forks of bone holding forceps hooked the pubic bone and tightened for its midline approximation, lengthening of the SPR and inward rotation of IP ramus. Linea alba and pubic bones were approximated with interrupted Polygalactin sutures. Results: Midline approximation of pubic bone and linea alba was possible in all. There was no injury to obturator nerve, vessels, or other structures . Conclusions: IP osteotomy is the safe and effective technique of pelvic ring closure in patients with specific pelvic configuration.
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Antireflux status post Roux-en-Y anastomosis: An experimental study for optimal antireflux technique p. 32
Ajay Kumar Verma, Om Prakash Purbey, Shiv Narain Kureel, Archika Gupta, Anand Pandey, Kanoujia Sunil, Digamber Chaubey
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_75_17  PMID:29386762
Background: Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy has been a gold standard to establish biliary-enteric anastomosis for various surgical indications, but associated with variable incidences of cholangitis. This experimental study was conducted to report a modification in Roux-en-Y anastomosis for possible better alternative to provide antireflux procedure after Roux-en-Y biliary-enteric anastomosis with the aim to minimize the possibility of reflux and its consequences. Materials and Methods: For experimental study, the required fresh segment of Lamb's small intestine was procured. Three sets of Roux-en-Y anastomosis were created for each experiment. In set 1, there was simple Roux-en-Y anastomosis. In set 2, Roux-en-Y anastomosis along with 4–5 cm long spur between the hepatic and duodenal limbs was created. In set 3, in addition to Roux-en-Y with creation of spur, additional antireflux mechanism was created at the junction of upper two-third and lower one-third of the hepatic limb. Saline mixed contrast was infused by infusion pump to raise the intraluminal pressure to more than 10 cm of H2O. X-ray was taken at that time. Results: In set 1, all preparations demonstrated reflux of contrast in the hepatic limb. The set 2 also demonstrated the same findings of 100% reflux in the hepatic limb. In set 3, No reflux was observed in 8 (80%) preparations while remaining 2 (20%) preparations reveal partial reflux. Conclusion: This experimental study suggests that the provision of spur and additional valve may be able to decrease the possibility of reflux in Roux-en-Y biliary-enteric anastomosis.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Ileal cystic lymphangioma presenting with acute appendicitis p. 36
Su-Ann Lui, Yoke Lin Nyo, VP Mali
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_44_17  PMID:29386763
Mesenteric lymphatic malformations are rare benign tumors that are most commonly found in children. The presentation of these tumors can be variable. It has been suggested that mesenteric lymphatic malformations are congenital; however, there is evidence that their size may be increased by infection. A 3-year 10-month-old boy presented with rhinorrhea and cough followed by acute abdominal pain. Ultrasonography revealed a lobulated mass in the lower abdomen. Computerized tomography scan of the abdomen diagnosed an inflamed appendix with perforation. Laparotomy revealed a multicystic mass within the mesentery closely adherent to the ileum; with omentum wrapped around. The appendix was dilated and firm. An ileal resection and an appendicectomy were performed. Histology confirmed acute transmural appendicitis with concurrent cystic lymphangioma of the ileal mesentery. Although rare, cystic lymphangioma must be considered in the differential of pediatric acute abdomen. Surgeons must be aware of this association and be reminded to inspect the rest of small bowel during appendicectomy especially if the preoperative imaging is suspicious.
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Nasal glial heterotopia with cleft palate p. 39
Sudhir Chandna, Milind A Mehta, Abhishek Kishore Kulkarni
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_56_17  PMID:29386764
Congenital midline nasal masses are rare anomalies of which nasal glial heterotopia represents an even rarer subset. We report a case of a 25-day-old male child with nasal glial heterotopia along with cleft palate suggesting embryonic fusion anomaly which was treated with excision and primary closure for nasal mass followed by palatal repair at later date.
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A rare case report of bilateral complex macrocystic adrenal hemorrhage mimicking fetal neuroblastoma p. 42
Geetika Sindhwani, Viral Patel, Abhinav Jain
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_74_17  PMID:29386765
Fetal and neonatal adrenal glands are large vascular organs, which make them vulnerable to frequent bleeding. Although neonatal adrenal hemorrhage is commonly reported, it is rarely diagnosed on antenatal sonography. We present a rare case of prenatally diagnosed bilateral adrenal hemorrhage, which mimicked antenatal neuroblastoma.
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Teratoma arising from hepato duodenal ligament in the newborn with transection of portal vein, hepatic artery and common bile duct: A surgical challenge p. 45
VR Ravikumar, G Rajamani, Vijayakumar Raju, Rajani Sundar, Sowmya Ravikumar, Raghul Maniam
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_131_17  PMID:29386766
A 7-day-old neonate presented with a large intra-abdominal mass adherent to the hilum of the liver encasing the portal triad. During excision, the portal vein, hepatic artery, and common bile duct were injured. The repair was done promptly and needed massive blood transfusion. Histopathology revealed immature teratoma Grade III. Survival in neonate following total transection of portal triad is rare and has not been reported.
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Abdominoperineal pull-through with simultaneous extravesical detrussoraphy: An alternative surgical technique for congenital pouch colon with high-grade vesicoureteric reflux p. 48
Monika Bawa, Ravi Kumar Garg, Vedarth Dash, Prema Menon, K.L.N. Rao
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_20_17  PMID:29386767
Congenital pouch colon (CPC) is frequently associated with vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). These patients require long-term antibiotic prophylaxis and/or an additional surgical intervention for the management of the refluxing system. We propose a single-stage alternative approach in these patients. Two patients diagnosed to have CPC underwent pouch excision and an end colostomy at birth. Further evaluation revealed high-grade reflux in both the patients. At 6 months of age, definitive abdominoperineal pull-through (APPT) surgery along with extravesical detrusorrhaphy was performed. In the follow-up at 1 year, they are thriving well with no urinary complaints. Micturating cystourethrogram revealed complete resolution of VUR. This approach takes the advantage of the anesthesia for APPT and offers a relatively simple and quick solution for the refluxing system, thus, enabling the stoppage of antibiotic prophylaxis and obviating the need for a future endoscopy/surgery.
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Pediatric chylopericardium: Treatment conundrum p. 51
Mitul Jasani, Amar Shah, Anirudh V Shah
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_252_16  PMID:29386768
Primary chylopericardium is a rare entity in the pediatric population, which is characterized by chyle accumulation in the pericardial sac. Treatment of this rare problem is a management dilemma as no definitive treatment has been found to be curative. We share our experience of treating chylopericardium with minimally invasive surgery.
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Top

Mesenteric leiomyoma in infancy p. 53
Mahmood Dhahir Al-Mendalawi
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_169_17  PMID:29386769
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Plagiarism and pediatric surgery publications p. 53
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_193_17  PMID:29386770
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  2005 - Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow 

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