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Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
     Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
Official journal of the Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons         
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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October-December 2017
Volume 22 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 197-260

Online since Tuesday, September 12, 2017

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EDITORIALS  

Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons: Present status p. 197
Biswanath Mukhopadhyay
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.214457  
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Plagiarism and its effect on pediatric surgery publications p. 199
Rishavdeb Patra
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.214458  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Preperitoneal bladder augmentation: Feasibility and results p. 202
Dhruva Nath Ghosh, Sampath Karl, Sudipta Sen
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.214443  
Introduction: Bladder augmentation is an important part of pediatric reconstructive urology. This study was conducted to assess the feasibility and results of our technique of preperitoneal bladder augmentation. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three children underwent preperitoneal bladder augmentation for small inelastic bladders who had failed medical management or needed undiversion. The underlying diagnosis included neurogenic bladder, valve bladder, bladder exstrophy, non-neurogenic neurogenic, ectopic ureters, and urogenital sinus. The operative procedure involved placing the entire augmentation in the preperitoneal or subcutaneous space after bivalving the native bladder. The augment segment of the bowel with its pedicle was brought into the preperitoneal space through a small opening in the parietal peritoneum. A Mitrofanoff port was also provided where needed. Results: Preperitoneal augmentation provided an adequately compliant, good volume bladder except in children with bladder exstrophy or previous abdominal surgery. There was a good cystometric recovery, with resolution of hydronephrosis and incontinence. Vesicoureteral reflux resolved in 24 of 26 units. In the 13 children who were uremic preoperatively, there was a significant decrease in serum creatinine levels, although 9 children continued to have supra-normal serum creatinine. Surgical complications seen were within expectations. There was no incidence of intraperitoneal leak, which is the main projected benefit of this procedure over the traditional “intraperitoneal” method of augmentation. Conclusions: The preperitoneal augmentation provides an adequate, safe, and low-pressure reservoir of urine except in cases of bladder exstrophy and previous abdominal surgery.
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Imperforate hymen: Varied presentation, new associations, and management p. 207
Raghu Sampally Ramareddy, Anjala Kumar, Anand Alladi
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.214451  
Aim: Imperforate hymen is an isolated and sporadic event. The aim of this study was to report varied clinical and management problems of consecutive imperforate hymen in children and to compare the genetic review with literature. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of eight consecutive imperforate hymen children admitted during 2010–2015. Results: Among eight girls, two were infants and six were in the adolescent group. Clinical presentations included varied degree of genitourinary obstruction (7) and incidental finding (1). Genetic analysis of imperforate hymen suggested sporadic event (5), associations (2), and syndromic (1). Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging revealed the level of obstruction. Hymenectomy was done in neonate (1), adolescent (6), and one has been under observation. Abdominoperineal pull-through was done in concomitant proximal vaginal atresia. Conclusions: Hymen development origin is variable and complex. Imperforate hymen is rarely a part of systemic/genetic anomaly. Genital examination at birth or during puberty is mandatory which often guides the timing of hymenectomy and prevents the sequelae of imperforate hymen. Hymenectomy is ideal during puberty and resolves all genitourinary obstructions.
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“Neo-PIRO”: Introducing a novel grading system for surgical infections of neonates p. 211
G Raghavendra Prasad, JV Subba Rao, Amtul Aziz, TM Rashmi
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.214455  
Introduction: Quantification of surgical sepsis was never done beyond superficial, subfascial, and deep surgical site infection (SSI). Invasive surgical sepsis with systemic manifestation has not been tried to be quantified in general and pediatric surgery in particular. Hence, this attempts to develop a novel grading system to quantify neonatal surgical infections. Materials and Methods: Predisposing factors, infection, response, and organ failure (PIRO) is being used in critical care institutions for medical sepsis; it was modified with neonate-specific surgical parameters. Authors have developed a grading of these parameters into Grade I, II, and III. Results: A blinded statistical test was performed and results were put to test. Extended Mantel–Haenszel Chi-square test validated linear relationship with grade and outcome, hospital stay, deep SSI, and organ dysfunction. Analysis of variance also showed the significant relationship of changing trends in grade and outcome. (1) Higher the grade indicated the probability of death. (2) Grade I patients had less duration of hospital stay compared to Grade II and III (P = 0.04). (3) The requirement of organ support and SSI were also more in Grade III. (4) Grade I patients had less increase in trends compared to Grade II and III (F = 4.86). Authors therefore feel Neo-PIRO seems to be the first scoring system that shows a linear relationship between scores and grade. Conclusion: Neo-PIRO is a novel grading system with surgical neonate-specific parameters. Future versions to include molecular parameters, as well as parameters selected by regression analysis.
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The modified posterior thoracotomy for esophageal atresia p. 217
Mohamed Oulad Saiad
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_202_16  
Aims: Right dorsolateral thoracotomy with splitting or sparing the latissimus dorsi is the standard approach to the esophageal atresia. The thoracoscopic approach to the treatment of esophageal atresia is a demanding procedure used only by few surgeons in few centers. The purpose of this study is to present the modified posterior thoracotomy for neonates with esophageal atresia. Patients and Methods: Between January 2007 and May 2016, the modified posterior thoracotomy was performed in 56 neonates with esophageal atresia. Results: The modified posterior thoracotomy preserves the latissimus dorsi and the thoracodorsal nerve. Neither the latissimus dorsi nor the serratus anterior is mobilized or skin flaps elevated. Satisfactory exposure, functional, and cosmetic results were obtained. No complication related to the approach was encountered. Conclusion: The modified posterior thoracotomy is a reliable approach in the treatment of esophageal atresia in neonates.
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Risk factors for a persistent gastrocutaneous fistula following gastrostomy device removal: A tertiary center experience p. 220
Abdulrahman Alshafei, Dawn Deacy, Brice Antao
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_205_16  
Aim: The aim of this study is to identify the risk factors for a persistent gastrocutaneous fistula (GCF) after gastrostomy device (GD) removal in children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 59 patients that underwent GD insertion and removal over an 11-year period (2005–2015). Patients were divided into two Groups (A and B) according to persistence or closure of the gastrocutaneous tract. Data included patient demographics, comorbidities, age at insertion, gastrostomy site infections, size and type of device, duration of placement, and method of insertion and removal. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test and ANOVA test where P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 34 patients (Group A) developed a GCF post-GD removal. The gastrostomy tract closed spontaneously in 25 patients (Group B). Underlying comorbidities did not influence spontaneous closure. Younger age at insertion (<2 years), longer duration of device placement, open gastrostomy insertion, upsizing the GD, changing a gastrostomy tube to a button, and site infections were significant risk factors for a persistent GCF. Conclusions: Risk analysis of persistent GCF is important for patient counseling before removal or replacement of the GD. We have identified a number of potentially reversible risk factors for a persistent GCF and have made recommendations accordingly.
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Parental satisfaction with pediatric day-care surgery and its determinants in a tertiary care hospital p. 226
Cenita James Sam, Pavai A Arunachalam, Sivamani Manivasagan, T Surya
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_212_16  
Objective: The objective is to assess the level of parental satisfaction of pediatric day-care surgery and its different determinants. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study performed in a tertiary care hospital in India among parents of pediatric day-care surgery patients from June 2013 to March 2015. The core questionnaire for the assessment of patient satisfaction for general day care (COPS-D) was used. Variables related to surgery, overall satisfaction, one open-ended question, and socio-demographic data were also collected. Calculated sample size was 121. Results: The mean and standard deviation of parental satisfaction were estimated in eight domains of day care (COPS-D) using Likert scale 1–5. Preadmission visit had a mean of 4.63 (0.52), day of surgery 4.65 (0.58), operating room 4.76 (0.51), nursing care 4.46 (0.79), medical care 4.89 (0.48), information 4.51 (0.68), autonomy 4.64 (0.56), and discharge 4.50 (0.72). In elder children, there was less satisfaction on the information and discharge domains. Overall satisfaction was good in 88% of patients and was less than satisfactory when they had significant pain. Conclusion: Perception of quality of pediatric day-care surgery was assessed with a questionnaire and was found to be good. Variables related to surgery such as pain may be included in the questionnaire for assessing satisfaction in the day-care surgery.
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Laparoscopy in the evaluation of impalpable testes and its short-term outcomes: A 7 years' experience p. 232
Rajarshi Kumar, Kartik Chandra Mandal, Pankaj Halder, Md. Hadiuzzaman, Madhumita Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath Mukhopadhyay
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_54_17  
Aims: The aim of this study is to report and analyze results of laparoscopy in impalpable testes performed between 2009 and 2016 and its short-term outcomes. Materials and Methods: Demographic data, laterality, laparoscopic findings, operative time, procedure, hospital stay, complications, and follow-up data of 76 patients with 79 impalpable testes from 2009 to 2016 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Successful outcome was defined as maintenance of intrascrotal position with no atrophy at a follow-up of at least 6 months. Results: Impalpable testes constituted 24% of undescended testes in our series. Mean age was 3.9 years. Forty-two patients had left-sided, 31 right-sided, and three bilateral impalpable testes. Of the 79 clinically impalpable testes, on laparoscopy, 3 were vanishing testes, 52 were intra-abdominal (6 high-lying and 46 low-lying), 18 canalicular and 6 nubbin testes. Ultimately, 52 underwent laparoscopic orchiopexy: 46 single-staged orchiopexy and 6 two-staged Fowler–Stephens procedure. Mean operating time was 77 min. Complications were few and mostly minor. Eleven patients were lost in follow-up. On a mean follow-up of 23 months, one testis that underwent single-staged laparoscopic orchiopexy atrophied whereas good size and intrascrotal position were maintained in the rest. Conclusions: Laparoscopy in impalpable testes was safe, feasible, and effective. Overall outcome was good which was obtained by minimal use of electrocautery, dissection with wide strip of peritoneum and extensive retroperitoneal dissection for mobilization. There is a need for wide reporting of cases from high-volume pediatric surgery centers in India.
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Pre-operative hepatic artery resistive index is a non-invasive predictive indicator of prognosis in biliary atresia p. 237
Deepak Mittal, Veereshwar Bhatnagar, Sandeep Agarwala, Maddur Srinivas, Manisha Jana, Arun Kumar Gupta, Nibhriti Das, Manoj Kumar Singh
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_103_17  
Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate hepatic artery resistive index (HARI) as a noninvasive prognostic predictor by correlating it with peripheral blood nitric oxide (NO) levels, portal pressure (PP) and histopathological changes in the liver in patients of biliary atresia (BA). Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients were included in the study prospectively from November 2012 to June 2014. All patients underwent Doppler sonography to calculate the HARI preoperatively. Peripheral blood NO was also measured preoperatively. Biochemical liver function tests (LFTs) were measured preoperatively and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. The PP was measured intraoperatively, and a liver biopsy was taken in all patients. Disappearance of jaundice defined successful surgical treatment. Postoperatively, a hepatobiliary IminoDiacetic Acid scan (HIDA) was done to demonstrate a patent bilio-enteric pathway. Results: The mean preoperative HARI was 0.78 ± 0.105, and the median was 0.80 (range 0.60–1.0). The median HARI was used to correlate the other parameters; 13 (52%) patients had HARI ≥0.8. The mean PP was 24.96 ± 6.54 mmHg. The HARI had a strong correlation with PP (P = 0.0001) and (NO) (P = 0.0001); with every 0.1 increase in HARI, there was 5.2 mmHg increase in PP and 3.8 μmol/L increase in NO. The histological parameters which reached significance in relation to HARI were hepatocellular damage, bile duct inflammation, portal inflammation, and portal fibrosis. The postoperative improvement in LFT was significantly better in patients with HARI <0.8. All four patients who died during or after the study period had HARI >0.8, elevated PP, and NO levels. Conclusions: Preoperative HARI was found to have a direct correlation with PP and peripheral blood NO as a measure of portal hypertension. A preoperative HARI ≥0.8 should be considered as a risk factor for poor outcomes in BA.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Recurrent malignant pheochromocytoma with lymph nodal metastasis in a child: A rare case p. 242
Jayesh Mittal, Ramanitharan Manikandan, Lalgudi Narayanan Dorairajan, Pampa Ch Toi
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.214454  
Malignant pheochromocytoma in children manifesting as local recurrence with multiple lymph nodal metastasis is a rare entity. We report a case of a 14-year-old child with recurrent sporadic malignant pheochromocytoma presenting 8 years after primary surgery with retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy. The child underwent excision of the tumor along with retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy. Histopathology confirmed pheochromocytoma with extensive lymph node metastasis. The patient has no signs of disease recurrence till date. This report supports the long-term follow-up and aggressive surgical approach to remove all foci of tumor in recurrent pheochromocytoma.
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Solitary Peutz–Jeghers polyp of jejunum: A rare cause of childhood intussusception p. 245
Akshay B Kalavant, Prema Menon, Suvradeep Mitra, Babu Ram Thapa, Katragadda Lakshmi Narasimha Rao
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.214442  
An extremely rare case of solitary jejunal Peutz–Jeghers polyp causing intussusception in an 8-year-old boy is reported. The polyp was excised by laparoscopic-assisted surgery. This appears to be only the fourth and the youngest patient with such a polyp reported in the indexed English language literature.
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Neonatal appendicitis and incarcerated inguinal hernia: Case report and review of the literature p. 248
Francesco Fascetti-Leon, William Sherwood
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_226_16  
Neonatal appendicitis carries a high mortality rate. We describe a peculiar case presented after an incarcerated hernia manually reduced in a 4-week-old male neonate with ipsilateral undescended testis. Laparoscopy allowed a prompt recognition of an unexpected intra-abdominal life-threatening condition. Pathogenesis, treatment, and outcome are discussed on the light of a comprehensive literature review.
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Ectopic salivary gland cyst in the neck: Association with congenital plunging ranula p. 251
Nitin Pant, Ajay Kumar Verma, Tanvir Roshan Khan, Ashish Wakhlu
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_260_16  
Congenital ranula is rare. We report a large, symptomatic, congenital plunging ranula associated with a salivary gland cyst in the neck. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such reported case. Even though both the cysts had their origin from the sublingual gland, only the cervical cyst had a capsular covering. Herniation of a part of the immature sublingual gland anlage through a congenital mylohyoid defect, its separation, and subsequent maturation could explain this occurrence.
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Kluth type IV3 membranous esophageal atresia at middle one-third of esophagus: An extremely rare entity p. 254
Rahul Gupta, Pramila Sharma, Arvind Kumar Shukla, Sunil Mehra
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_263_16was  
We herein present an extremely rare case of an isolated membranous atresia causing near-complete obstruction of the esophagus. The neonate presented with drooling of saliva and frothing from the mouth. A red rubber catheter met with an obstruction at 12 cm from the gum margins. Radiograph showed paucity of gas in the abdomen. Thoracotomy revealed external continuity of esophagus; dilated and elongated proximal segment constituting upper half of esophagus, and a membrane with tiny opening in the center, at its junction with narrow distal segment. Excision was performed. A high index of suspicion for membrane should be kept in dealing with esophageal obstruction beyond 10 cm from the gum margins, particularly those with paucity of abdominal gas pattern or gasless abdomen.
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Top

Assessment of nutritional status of patients of congenital pouch colon following definitive surgery p. 257
Mahmood Dhahir Al-Mendalawi
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_47_17  
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Schistosomiasis: A rare cause of meatal stenosis! p. 258
Meera Luthra, Ritesh Sachdev, Shalini Goel
DOI:10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_256_16  
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BOOK REVIEW Top

Bipolar p. 260
Rishavdeb Patra
DOI:10.4103/0971-9261.214456  
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  2005 - Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow 

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