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Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
     Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
Official journal of the Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons         
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EDITORIAL
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 121-122
 

Pediatric Endourology


Senior Consultant (Ped Urology and Ped Surgery) Department of Pediatric Urology and Pediatric Surgery, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication9-Jul-2014

Correspondence Address:
Sujit Chowdhary
Senior Consultant (Ped Urology and Ped Surgery) Department of Pediatric Urology and Pediatric Surgery, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-9261.136454

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How to cite this article:
Chowdhary S. Pediatric Endourology. J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg 2014;19:121-2

How to cite this URL:
Chowdhary S. Pediatric Endourology. J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Dec 10];19:121-2. Available from: http://www.jiaps.com/text.asp?2014/19/3/121/136454


In our country, pediatric endourology has emerged in the past decade in such a manner that the definition of pediatric urology from the broad field of pediatric surgery is now getting defined in the same way as the arrival of endourology, which separated urology from general surgery four decades ago. For a long time through the past century, endourology in the pediatric age remained confined to cystoscopy and allied procedures. This was due to the fact that many pioneering senior pediatric surgeons in our country on their return back from their Western training, set up structured training program in pediatric surgery, and endoscopic surgery was initiated using cystoscope as access into the lower urinary tract.

However, the lack of video monitor, expensive and delicate pediatric instrumentation, rarity of the diseases of lower urinary tract, and lack of a well developed referral system, meant that progress was slow in the initial years of the development of our speciality. The training programs could not impart the skill to the trainees, as the trainee had no chance to observe the surgery or be made to perform surgery under supervision in the absence of a video monitor and recording facility. In the past decade, the scenario around pediatric endourology has undergone a steadily improving situation where now, in an infant or a child, virtually no open urological operations are performed in some pediatric units in the country. All these procedures are on video monitor, and recorded for trainees to learn and have a chance to perform increasingly complex procedures under supervision. This is the true defining moment for the subspeciality of pediatric urology within the broad speciality of pediatric surgery. In real life, a surgical speciality or specialist is known by what is the surgery that is being offered, which generalists are not able to offer!

The 9F rigid neonatal resectoscope has been around for more than a quarter century, and all modification of valve ablation without visual control or urinary diversion should be a practice of the past in all corners, even in our developing country. The integral 7.5 F and 9 F cystoscopes with straight working channel and offset lens arrived a few years later, and remains the workhorse for all allied procedures. Posterior urethral valves in smaller babies less than 2.5 kg can be incised using a cold knife with 7.5 F integral cystoscope and straight channel with offset lens. However, at best, this approach is a temporarising procedure with need for a check around 3 months with a micturating cysto-urethrogram and cystoscopy. The extended use of the 9 F resectoscope for the deroofing of ureterocoele with or without a Double J (DJ) stenting requires advance skills. The available clinical evidence at this stage suggests that only 50% of these would need secondary surgery in the first decade of life after adequate deroofing. Improving working instruments like graspers, cold knife, injection needles, lithoclast probes in the range of Ύ F have allowed several procedures to be done and wider use of DJ stents in all ages following surgery of upper urinary tract.

The concept of DJ stenting and delayed dilatation of the vesicoureteric junction and ureter over the next 3 weeks is a well established practice for allowing access into pediatric ureter or the kidney safely. This approach has special relevance with wider availability of flexible ureterorenoscope and laser with feasibility of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). However, this has not been addressed well in literature. This approach actually allows ureterorenoscopic surgery in a small child. The arrival of 4.5 F rigid ureterorenoscope has made the need for this delayed approach, to be less common. There are some concerns about the natural history of delayed approach and dilatation of vesico-ureteric junction (VUJ) to allow access to ureterorenoscope, in terms of developing secondary vesicoureteric reflux. This may be an interesting area of clinical research where an indirect nuclear cystogram at 6 months following ureterorenoscopy and removal of DJ stents will close this controversy, which has been raised in several national meetings in the recent past in our country.

The use of electric diathermy current for incising posterior urethral valve is well established. The quality of electric generator and the skill of the surgeon determine the collateral damage to the tissue. The initial enthusiasm about use of laser for this surgery has not really taken off due to several reasons. The use of Holmium laser is superior to use of lithoclast for pediatric urolithiasis, and is particularly gaining ground with rising popularity of flexible ureterorenoscope. Mini percutaneous nephro lithotomy (PCNL) with 12 F nephroscope is specially suited for pediatric renal stones. However, the excellent results of extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy in children and future moving toward RIRS and laser lithotripsy, means the case load for pediatric PCNL is always going to be a problem for centers to allow training opportunity in pediatric units. In most cases, each centre will have to work their own team consisting of urologists or radiologists to develop the transrenal tract, so that experience remains concentrated in limited hands to allow this infrequent procedure to be done elegantly and safely in children.

The maturation of laparoscopic urology, and now the arrival of robotic pediatric urology, which is confined to New Delhi and Chennai at present, is bound to evolve over the next few years, with new centers joining. The robotic approach allows complex surgery at the renal level like the partial nephrectomy for small polar tumors, heminephroureterectomy, or pyeloplasty for pelviureteric junction obstruction in a duplex kidney/horseshoe kidney to be done elegantly. At the same time, excision of ureterocele and ureteric reimplantation at the bladder level and even ileocystoplasty with ureteric reimplantation has been done at the Apollo Hospitals. These have been safely executed with the same precision as that of open surgery. Robotic pediatric urology has truly taken pediatric urology in India to the next orbit, where virtually open surgery for any urological reconstruction in an infant or child will be out over the next few years.

For this issue, we have invited articles on long-term experience on endoscopic treatment of posterior urethral valves, ureterocoeles, and ureteric stones from Indian centers and a guest article on robotic approach to problems in pediatric urology from Chicago, all presented by Indian authors.

It is a very interesting time ahead for pediatric endourology in this country as the race between adult and pediatric has narrowed down, as virtually any technology and minimally invasive approach is available to the babies and children too! Similarly, it is the first time in history that we are able to offer nearly the same surgical technology to our babies as in the developed world .The world of pediatric endourology will continue to be exciting with miniaturization of robotic platform, arrival of flexible equipment, and laser as the wider energy source with price rationalization and more training opportunities than ever before for those joining the field.

 
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