|Year : 2012 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 68-70
Completely isolated enteric duplication cyst associated with a classic enterogenous duplication cyst
Nitin Pant1, Jitendra K Grover1, Neha K Madan2, Rajiv Chadha1, Kiran Agarwal2, Subhasis R Choudhury1
1 Department of Pediatric Surgery, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Pathology, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital, New Delhi, India
|Date of Web Publication||17-Mar-2012|
G-123 Vikaspuri, New Delhi - 110 018
| Abstract|| |
This report describes an 18-month-old boy with a completely isolated duplication cyst (CIDC) of the ileum associated with another classic enteric duplication cyst in the adjacent bowel and presenting as an acute abdomen due to torsion of the pedicle of the CIDC. Cysts excision was curative.
Keywords: Completely isolated duplication cyst, duplication cyst, enteric duplications, enterogenous cyst, notochord
|How to cite this article:|
Pant N, Grover JK, Madan NK, Chadha R, Agarwal K, Choudhury SR. Completely isolated enteric duplication cyst associated with a classic enterogenous duplication cyst. J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg 2012;17:68-70
|How to cite this URL:|
Pant N, Grover JK, Madan NK, Chadha R, Agarwal K, Choudhury SR. Completely isolated enteric duplication cyst associated with a classic enterogenous duplication cyst. J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg [serial online] 2012 [cited 2013 Jun 19];17:68-70. Available from: http://www.jiaps.com/text.asp?2012/17/2/68/93966
| Introduction|| |
Completely isolated duplication cysts (CIDC) involving the gastrointestinal tract are a rare variant of enterogenous duplication cysts.  Coexistence of a CIDC with a classic enterogenous duplication cyst has been reported only once earlier in the literature  and an acute presentation of a CIDC has not been reported earlier.
| Case Report|| |
An 18-month-old boy presented with abdominal pain and distension for the past 2 days and bilious vomiting for 1 day. On examination, the child was lethargic and mildly dehydrated with a heart rate of 130/min. His abdomen was distended and tender. A vague mass was felt over the umbilical and epigastric regions. The abdominal radiographs revealed a ground-glass appearance along with a prominent bowel loop with an air-fluid level. An ultrasound (US) showed free fluid within the peritoneal cavity and an elongated, dilated, thick-walled loop of bowel in the epigastric region with inflamed mesentery. A presumptive diagnosis of small bowel volvulus with gangrene was made.
At laparotomy, approximately 200 ml of dark-red fluid was sucked out and a 25 x 9 cm tensely cystic, shiny, edematous, tubular mass with necrotic walls was found. The mass had a separate mesenteric pedicle arising from the base of the ileal mesentery, approximately 20 cm from the ileocecal junction. The pedicle had undergone torsion of three turns with resultant gangrene and perforation of the wall of the cyst. A loop of the ileum was adherent at the site of the perforation. A second cyst (8 cm in length) was present between the leaves of the ileal mesentery in the adjacent ileum, sharing a common wall with the ileum, suggesting an enteric duplication cyst. The straight arteries from the vasa recta traversed on both sides of the cyst to the adjacent bowel. The pedicle of the isolated cyst was divided between ligatures and the cyst excised. The enteric duplication cyst was excised along with the adjacent ileum and an ileoileal anastomosis performed. On sectioning the wall of the enteric duplication cyst, gastric-type mucosal folds were seen, whereas the CIDC showed a flattened inner lining. The postoperative period was uneventful. Histopathology of the CIDC revealed intestinal-type mucosa along with areas of necrosis and gangrene, while the duplication cyst adjacent to the ileum was lined entirely by gastric mucosa.
| Discussion|| |
Alimentary tract duplications are usually anatomically connected with some portion of the gastrointestinal tract and have a common blood supply with the adjacent segment of intestine. , CIDC are a rare variant of enterogenous duplication cysts and only 12 cases have been previously reported in the English literature. ,,,,,,,,, According to Menon et al.,  no discernible communication or connection with the adjacent alimentary tract along with the presence of the typical histopathological features of a duplication cyst would qualify for the diagnosis of a CIDC. These cysts usually present either as an incidental abdominal mass on antenatal US ,,, or in the perinatal period. ,, Presentation as a slowly growing abdominal mass in the first  or third decades of life , has also been reported. As in our patient, the CIDC may have a stalk with a leash of vessels arising from the adjacent bowel mesentery. ,,,, However, a CIDC located within the mesentery of the small bowel has been reported,  while in several reports, ,, the CIDC was located in the retroperitoneum.
Our patient presented with an acute abdomen due to volvulus and perforation of the cyst. An acute presentation of these cysts has not been reported earlier, although Menon et al.,  suggested it to be a strong possibility. Another unique feature was the coexistence of the CIDC with a classic enteric duplication cyst, a finding reported only once earlier in the literature.  Norris et al.,  described a case with a long tubular duplication of the jejunum where the proximal 10 cm segment of the cyst shared a common seromuscular coat with the bowel wall, the middle 20 cm lay separately within the leaves of the mesentery, while the final 10 cm was suspended by its own mesentery and ended blindly. Thus, the duplication became more distant from the normal bowel as one progressed distally.  There was another large cystic enteric duplication within the mesenteric leaves and a large left-sided posterior mediastinal cyst connected by a pedicle to a smaller cyst within the diaphragm.
Many possible embryological mechanisms have been proposed for the origin of enteric duplications, namely partial or abortive twinning,  split notochord theory,  diverticular and canalisation defects,  and intrauterine vascular accidents.  Partial or abortive twinning can explain doubling or duplication anomalies of the head, upper alimentary tract, hindgut, and the lower genitourinary tract. [3,12] The split notochord theory proposes that abnormal separation of the notochord from the gut endoderm can cause dorsal enteric duplications or diverticulae  and this can account for the 15% of enteric duplications with associated vertebral defects.  The theory of aberrant luminal recanalization proposes to explain duplications in those portions of the gastrointestinal tract that go through the solid stage during embryonic development such as the esophagus, small intestine, and colon.  As such, no single mechanism can account for all the known variants of enteric duplications. Based on their study of 83 intestinal duplications, Li et al.,  classified them into two types based on the vascular supply to the duplication and the adjacent bowel. In this study, 91.6% patients with type 2 cysts had associated thoracic vertebral defects and Li et al.,  proposed that the embryology of type 2 cysts could be explained by the split notochord theory. Type 1 cysts could be explained by the theories of midline splitting of primordial tissue and persistence of fetal gut diverticula. 
Menon et al.,  suggested that their finding of a CIDC in the mesentery of the small bowel, supplied by blood vessels from the adjacent retroperitoneum rather than the mesenteric vessels, indicated that part of the embryonic gut had been sequestered during early embryonic life. Okamoto et al.,  also suggested that as the blood supply to their isolated gastric duplication cyst came from the adjacent retroperitoneum, the abnormality could have occurred at a relatively early gestational age by abnormal splitting of the notochord. 
The CIDC in our patient as well as in other reported cases ,,,, had a separate mesentery and can be considered as a variant of type 1 cysts according to Li et al.,  classification. The adjoining intramesenteric cyst can be classified as a type 2 cyst although the patient did not have any vertebral anomaly. However, it is difficult to explain the occurrence of two separate embryological mechanisms, as suggested by Li et al.,  to account for type 1 and type 2 cysts, occurring in the same patient. Steiner et al.,  proposed that the case reported by Norris et al.,  could represent an intermediate situation between a usual duplication and a completely isolated one with the proximal segment representing a classical duplication cyst and the distal segment a CIDC. This process might have been triggered by a vascular accident at the proximal end of the duplication resulting in a separated duplication cyst suspended by its own mesentery.  Although it is tempting to suggest that in our patient, a similar vascular accident could have resulted in complete separation of a segment from the classic duplication cyst resulting in the CIDC with its own leash of vessels, this theory cannot explain the finding that while the classic duplication cyst was lined by gastric mucosa, the adjacent CIDC was lined by intestinal mucosa. Significantly, in one of the cases reported by Norris et al.,  the intraabdominal duplication cysts were lined by intestinal mucosa while the mediastinal cysts were lined by gastric mucosa. Heterotopic gastric mucosa lining a CIDC has been reported, ,, while in one patient, a CIDC attached to the distal ileum was lined by respiratory epithelium. 
In conclusion, our case as well as the case reported by Norris et al.,  show that a CIDC may be associated with other enteric duplication cysts and careful examination for these must be performed during laparotomy. As suggested by Menon et al.,  awareness of the varied presentations of duplication cysts may help in appropriate management, without any confusion, during surgery.
| References|| |
|1.||Menon P, Rao KL, Vaiphei K. Isolated enteric duplication cysts. J Pediatr Surg 2004;39:E5-7. |
|2.||Norris RW, Brereton RJ, Wright VM, Cudmore RE. A new surgical approach to duplications of the intestine. J Pediatr Surg 1986;21:167-70. |
|3.||Lund DP. Alimentary tract duplications. In: Grosfeld JL, O'Neill JA, Fonkalsrud EW, Coran AG, editors. Pediatric Surgery. 6 th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2006. p. 1389-98. |
|4.||Okamoto T, Takamizawa S, Yokoi A, Satoh S, Nishijima E. Completely isolated alimentary tract duplication in a neonate. Pediatr Surg Int 2008;24:1145-7. |
|5.||Duncan BW, Adzic DN, Eraklis A. Retroperitoneal alimentary tract duplications detected in utero. J Pediatr Surg 1992;27:1231-3. |
|6.||Steiner Z, Mogilner J. A rare case of completely isolated duplication cyst of the alimentary tract. J Pediatr Surg 1999;34:1284-6. |
|7.||Kim SK, Lim HK, Lee SJ, Paek CK. Completely isolated enteric duplication cyst: Case report. Abdom Imaging 2003;28:12-4. |
|8.||Nakazawa N, Okazaki T, Miyano T. Prenatal detection of isolated gastric duplication cyst. Pediatr Surg Int 2005;21:831-4. |
|9.||Sinha A, Ojha S, Sarin YK. Completely isolated, non-contiguous duplication cyst. Eur J Pediatr Surg 2006;16:127-9. |
|10.||Srivastava P, Gangopadhyay AN, Kumar V, Upadhyaya VD, Sharma SP, Jaiman R, et al. Noncommunicating isolated enteric duplication cyst in childhood. J Pediatr Surg 2009;44:E9-10. |
|11.||Gümüs M, Kapan M, Gümüs H, Onder A, Girgin S. Unusual noncommunicating isolated enteric duplication cyst in adults. Gastroenterol Res Pract 2011;2011:323919. |
|12.||Ravitch MM. Hindgut duplications-Doubling of colon and genital urinary tracts. Ann Surg 1953;137:588-601. |
|13.||Bentley JF, Smith JR. Developmental posterior enteric remnants and spinal malformations: The split notochord syndrome. Arch Dis Child 1960;35:76-86. |
|14.||Bremer JL. Diverticula and duplications of the intestinal tract. Arch Pathol 1994;38:132-40. |
|15.||Favara BE, Franciosi RA, Akers DR. Enteric Duplications. Thirty-seven cases: A vascular theory of pathogenesis. Am J Dis Child 1971;122:501-6. |
|16.||De Roeck A, Vervloessem D, Mattelaer C, Schwagten K. Isolated enteric duplication cyst with respiratory epithelium: Case report and review of the literature. Eur J Pediatr Surg 2008;18:337-9. |
|17.||Li L, Jin-Zhe Z, Yan-Xia W. Vascular classification for small intestinal duplications: Experience with 80 cases. J Pediatr Surg 1998;33:1243-5. |